If you’re starting a job search in 2018, getting your cover letter right is just as important as perfecting your CV.
After hours spent crafting your CV, it can seem a little superfluous to transfer the information into letter format. However, your cover letter shouldn’t be a regurgitation of your CV. Instead, it should zoom in on a few key skills and experiences on your CV that the employer values the most. As a result, your cover letter should be bespoke for every application.
Some recruiters may receive hundreds of applications a day, so your cover letter gives you a chance to stand out from the crowd. With 57.1% of professionals ranking the cover letter as an essential application component, you can’t afford to leave it out.
We know that writing these letters can seem daunting at first, especially as it can feel like there’s a lot to remember. To help, we’ve put together a comprehensive guide to building your cover letter and tailoring it for each opportunity you apply to.
Download our cover letter template
Do your research
Research is a crucial part of many aspects of job hunting, and before you begin writing your cover letter, you need to make sure you’ve done your research properly.
The important things you should research before writing are:
- Who will be receiving and reading your letter
- The skills and experience mentioned in the job description
- The company and its culture
- Their competitors and market position
- The sector and any recent news or trends
- The organisation’s aims for 2018 and beyond
Building up a good knowledge of the company and industry helps you to tailor your cover letter for each company you apply to, and shows your passion for the job and sector.
The basic format
There’s a basic format for writing a cover letter that you can follow each time. However, every letter you write should be tailored to the specific job role or company you’re applying for.
Your cover letter should address the following:
- Which position interests you and why
- Your most relevant skills and experiences
- How your skills and experiences can benefit the employer
- Requesting an interview
Below is a basic break down of how you should structure your cover letter for 2018:
How to structure and write a cover letter
In 2018, it’s very rare for cover letters to be hard copies as most are sent online. However, traditional cover letter conventions state that your cover letter should be written like any other formal business letter, even if you’re emailing it.
Start with your address and contact details in the top right-hand corner. Make sure your contact details are sensible – email addresses like firstname.lastname@example.org won’t make you look very professional! You should then follow this with the address of the company you’re applying for and the date further down and on the left-hand side.
[Address Line 1]
[Address Line 2]
[Address Line 3]
[Company address line 1]
[Company address line 2]
Your opening paragraph should be short and sweet made up of three things: why you’re writing the letter, the position you’re applying for, how you found out about the position. For example: “I am writing to apply for the role of [job title], in response to an advert I saw on [name of job site]. Please find my CV attached.”
The second paragraph should be about you, expanding on your CV and giving a brief summary of any relevant skills or education you have. Remember, your cover letter shouldn’t be a copy of your CV; it should take your most notable achievements, explain a bit more about them, and then show how these skills could benefit the employer. Mirror the skills mentioned and the phrasing that’s used in the job description.
The third paragraph is your chance to show your knowledge of the company and the sector and go into detail about why you want to work for their company specifically. You should state how you can help the company and add to their success, as well as why you’ll fit in with the company culture and core values.
End your letter with a call to action. As you’re hoping to secure an interview, let them know your availability for a callback. If you plan to follow up with a phone call, say so! If you plan to wait for a response, close with “I look forward to hearing from you”. Thank them for taking the time to read your letter and sign off with:
Download our cover letter template
Subscribe for weekly newsletters, written by our career experts
You have successfully subscribed to the Career Advice newsletter
Sending a cover letter online
With today’s technology, it’s common to send a cover letter – and a whole job application, for that matter – online or by email. This is especially common on job boards like CV-Library, and even with direct employers. If you need to send a cover letter online or via email, the approach you should take is a little different in terms of formatting.
If you just need to send your cover letter as an attachment, then write it as explained before. When it comes to saving it, make sure you use the .PDF file extension; any computer will be able to view the file, and all your formatting will be preserved.
Windows PCs use the .docx file extension for documents by default, whereas Macs use .pages. Avoid either of these, because there’s a chance that the employer won’t be able to open your cover letter. Stick with .PDF.
If you need to send your cover letter as the actual body text of your email, your approach will need to be slightly different. First, make sure you format the subject line of your email like so:
Application for [Job Title] – [Your Name]
If you were given a reference number, include that in the subject line as well. Once you’ve done that, it’s time to think about the layout of your letter. The paragraphs can be the same as a hard copy of your cover letter, but you can remove the addresses, date and signature.
If you’re applying for a job via a job board, you can sometimes afford to scale down your cover letter to key components. Check out this cover letter template for 2018:
I am interested in applying for the current vacancy you have for a [job title].
In my current role as [role title] with [company name], I am responsible for [insert relevant experience relating to job advert] but am currently looking to make a step up into a more challenging role with a reputable company who can offer career growth.
I am currently on a notice period of [notice period] and can interview immediately.
How long should my cover letter be?
Your cover letter should be no longer than a single A4 page. This can be tricky, especially since you want to impress the employer with all your skills and experience. But trust us; they simply won’t be interested in reading a 3,000-word essay. Even if they were, they probably just wouldn’t have the time! Keep it short, sweet, and simple.
Tailoring each cover letter
Each cover letter you write should be tailored specifically to the company and role you’re writing it for and should be detailed. Therefore you’ll want to avoid vague and generic phrases.
During the research stage, try to find the name of the hiring manager or whoever will be reading your letter. This way you can make the letter even more personal, and it will prove you’re a determined candidate who wants this job.
If you really can’t get hold of their name, you should instead start the letter with “Dear Sir or Madam” – but remember, if you don’t know their name, ensure you sign off your letter with “Yours faithfully” instead.
Read the job description so you can pick which of your skills or experiences to reference, and try to mirror some of the phrases they use in the job description. Illustrate your skills with examples to show why you’re the ideal candidate; as each company and role will be different, you’ll probably find that you’re using different examples on each letter.
Having done your research, you should also be able to talk specifically about the company in greater detail. Refer to their values or specific campaigns they have run that you enjoyed. This way they’ll know that you took the time to learn about their company and that you’re genuinely interested in them and the role.
When there’s no job advertised
If you haven’t seen an advertised position, but you’re contacting a company to find out if they currently have any vacancies, the format will be slightly different as you’ll be submitting a cold-contact cover letter.
You should address the letter formally as before, and try to get hold of the name of the hiring manager.
As you aren’t responding to a job ad, you should use your opening paragraph to explain why you’re writing to them and what it was that drew you to their company. If the reason for your application is a recommendation from someone, you know that already works there include their name.
You should also refer to the area of the company that you’d like to go into, for example, marketing or sales.
The body of the letter should remain relatively the same, highlighting your skills and experiences and giving detailed examples. Reiterate why you’re interested in their company specifically, talk about the sector and show that you’ve done your research.
In this instance, you should close the letter by thanking them for their time and expressing your interest in hearing from them with any available job vacancies that they may have.
Remember, each cover letter should be unique (even if you follow the basic format), and the aim is to make yourself stand out to recruiters. Follow these steps to writing your cover letter, and try to have fun with it!
In both your CV and your cover letter you should try to imagine yourself as a commodity and sell yourself to the company. There are several ways you can market yourself, and most of this will come from your research.
You need to demonstrate your knowledge of the company and the sector so that you can effectively explain why you’ll be beneficial to their company. As well as listing your skills and qualifications you could also demonstrate your interpersonal skills through talking about social activities and clubs.
All these aspects should help you build a case for why you’re going to add to the success of the company.
Top tips for success in 2018
Follow these cover letter tips for success to make sure you avoid making some fatal cover letter mistakes.
1. Keep it short
It may seem difficult with so much information to include, but you need to keep your cover letter short and sweet. Recruiters will give each letter about 20 to 30 seconds of their time, so it should be no more than an A4 page – they won’t trawl through ten pages, no matter how experienced and skilled you are.
2. Don’t just re-write your CV
The point of a cover letter is to expand upon your CV, not just re-write it—your CV should be attached to accompany your letter. Make sure you pick the most relevant examples and give details of your achievements.
3. Sign by hand
If you’re sending the letter in the post (old school, we know) then you should sign the letter by hand before you send it off—it adds a personal and more professional touch.
4. Sending online
Macs and PCs haven’t quite learnt to work in total harmony yet, and the last thing you want is the recruiter being unable to open your document. Instead, save your final CV as a pdf file; that way you know they’ll be able to open it on any device.
Once you’ve written your letter, check it over for mistakes and perhaps even have someone else read it over too. Recruiters aren’t going to take you seriously if you’ve made silly spelling or grammar mistakes.
6. Avoid clichés
Each letter should be personal, so avoid clichéd phrases that recruiters have read a thousand times! Don’t just say “I’m a team player”, these buzzwords and phrases won’t make you stand out. Instead, choose an example of when you worked well in a team and explain what happened and what you achieved.
7. Use numbers
If you can, use numbers or stats to illustrate your points as it’s a nice way to quantify your results and adds to the format of the letter.
8. Be creative
Writing cover letters doesn’t have to be boring; you can be a bit creative in your approach – especially if you’re going into a creative industry or job role. Play around with layouts and formats; as long as all the important information is in there and the layout isn’t distracting, have fun with it!
9. Use bullet points
This is not always necessary, but depending on the format you’ve chosen or the job role you’re applying for, bullet points could be an effective way of demonstrating your points and adding to the layout.
Upload your CV
Related Career Advice articles
Targeted Cover Letters (Writing Tips and Samples)
What does it take for your resume and cover letter to make an impact when an employer may have received hundreds of resumes for the position you applied for?
Employers can receive a tremendous number of resumes for every position they advertise. It may seem like an almost impossible task for a company to weed through them to find the best applicants to interview, or for you to be one of the selected candidates.
You can help make their job easier, and move your job application to the top of the pile, by writing a targeted cover letter and closely matching your credentials to the job.
How to Make the Cut
Employers do manage to reduce the pool of cover letters and resumes to a manageable number. How they do it can give you some insight into how to write cover letters that will make the cut. Because, if your cover letter doesn't pass muster, your resume won't even get a look.
If your cover letter and resume aren't perfect, they most likely will end up in the reject pile. And perfect means perfect - there should not be any typos or grammatical errors.
Employers typically won't even consider a candidate that they deem is not qualified at first glance. That first glance at your cover letter is your one opportunity to make a good impression and make it to the next round. Here's what employers look for when considering resumes and cover letters.
Targeted Cover Letters Writing Tips
It's certainly easier to write generic or blanket cover letters than it is to write a cover letter specifically targeted to each position you apply for. However, if you don't invest the time in writing cover letters, you're probably not going to get the interview, regardless of your qualifications.
Here are some suggestions on how to write a cover letter for a specific job opening:
Match Your Qualifications to the Job
This takes some time and effort and it's not always easy, but it's important. Take the job posting and list the criteria the employer is looking for. Then list the skills and experience you have. Either address how your skills match the job requirements in paragraph form, or make a comparative list of the criteria and your qualifications.
Sample Job Posting
BOX OFFICE MANAGER. Conduct, oversee subscription and ticket sales for events. Generate and maintain reports, perform accounting activities related to box office revenue, oversee operations. Requires customer service skills and accounting experience.
Cover Letter Example 1: Paragraph
As Box Office Assistant for the Light Opera Company, I was responsible for customer service, ticketing patrons, and generating and maintaining box office reports. In addition, I maintained records and accounting reports for all box office transactions.
Cover Letter Example 2: List
Box Office Manager Requirements:
- Conduct, oversee subscription and ticket sales for events
- Generate and maintain reports, perform accounting activities
- Customer service skills and accounting experience
My Skills and Experience:
- Box office management including ticketing, maintenance of records and ticket database management
- Maintain and generate reports
- Box office accounting transaction and reporting
- Customer service, seating, and ticketing patrons
As you can see, in both cases, the candidate has written a detailed cover letter that should survive the first screening. In order to pass that screening, you must specifically address the job ad and state why you are qualified for the position.
Given this competitive job market, it is critically important to target your cover letter and your resume. That way the employer knows exactly why you are qualified for the position and why they should consider you for an interview.
Targeted Cover Letter Examples
Here are examples of targeted cover letters which take the position requirements and match the applicant's skills to those requirements.
Your City, State, Zip Code
Your Phone Number
City, State, Zip Code
Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name:
I am interested in the Coordinator position advertised on XYZ. My resume is enclosed for your review. Given my related experience and excellent capabilities, I would appreciate your consideration for this job opening. My skills are an ideal match for this position.
- Responsible for evening operations in Student Center and other facilities, including managing registration, solving customer problems, dealing with risk management and emergencies, enforcement of department policies.
- Assists with hiring, training, and management of staff. Coordinate statistics and inventory.
- Experience in the supervision of student staff and strong interpersonal skills are also preferred.
- Valid Minnesota driver's license with good driving record. Ability to travel to different sites required.
- Experience in collegiate programming and management.
- Register students for courses, design and manage program software, solve customer problems, enforce department policies, and serve as a contact for students, faculty, and staff.
- Hiring, training, scheduling and management of staff, managing supply inventory, and ordering.
- Minnesota driver's license with NTSA defensive driving certification.
- Extensive experience in collegiate programming and management.
- Excellent interpersonal and communication skills.
I appreciate your taking the time to review my credentials and experience. Again, thank you for your consideration.
Your Signature (for hard copy letter)
Your Typed Name
Your City, State, Zip Code
Your Phone Number
City, State, Zip Code
Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name:
In response to your advertisement in the Milliken Valley Sentinel for Vice President, Operations, please consider the following:
Develop and implement strategic operational plans.
15+ years’ aggressive food company production management experience. Planned, implemented, coordinated, and revised all production operations in plant of 250+ employees.
Manage people, resources and processes.
Developed and published weekly processing and packaging schedules to meet annual corporate sales demands of up to $50 million. Met all production requirements and minimized inventory costs.
Coach and develop direct reports.
Designed and presented training programs for corporate, divisional and plant management personnel. Created employee involvement program resulting in $100,000+ savings annually.
Ensure operational service groups meet needs of external and internal customers.
Chaired cross-functional committee of 16 associates that developed and implemented processes, systems and procedures plant-wide. Achieved year end results of 12% increase in production, 6% reduction in direct operational costs, and increased customer satisfaction rating from 85% to 93.5%.
I welcome the opportunity to visit with you about this position. My resume has been uploaded, per your instructions. I may be reached at the number above. Thanks again for your consideration.
Your Signature (hard copy letter)
Your Typed Name
What To Do When You're Not a Strong Match for the Job
What do you do if you don't have the right stuff and it's hard to make the case that you should be considered for the job? It's a certainty that the person with ten years of child care experience, and no computer experience, who applied for an Oracle programmer position won't get an interview. If your qualifications don't come close to matching the criteria for the job, save your time and the company's time and don’t apply. In most cases, there are too many qualified candidates whose cover letter and resume will make the cut.
Instead, focus on applying for jobs you do qualify for and spend some time gaining the additional skills or education (volunteer, take a class, etc.) you need to prepare to apply for positions that are a rung or two up the ladder.
These tips will help you decide whether it makes sense to apply for a job - or not.
Read More: Review Sample Cover Letters | Top 10 Cover Letter Writing Tips | What to Include in a Cover Letter | Cover Letter Writing Guide | Email Cover Letters