Research Paper On Gender Discrimination In The Workplace

Katie Scire 

Final Paper 

Gender Discrimination in the Workplace

It is not up for debate whether women are discriminated against in the workplace it is evident in census data; in 1998 women made 73 cents to the dollar paid to men. Even today, there is still a pay gap that exists between women and men. It is said that the organizations that are pro-equal pay, including some unions, support the idea that the government should set wages for all jobs. To the contrary, the organizations that are proponents of equal pay are not for job wages being set by the government-they wish to have the discrimination taken out of pay scales from within the company. Commonly, this pay gap is attributed to the fact that women in the United States are still expected to attend to familial obligations over work. Data shows that women do attend to family obligations, like having a child, caring for a sick family member, or caring for an elder; but they also do not give up on work. Yes, women often chose lower paying jobs in exchange for flexible hours and do spend a lower number of hours per week long-term at their jobs than their male counterparts. Because women are socialized to be the primary care givers they are kept at these lower paying jobs that are more flexible, the jobs allow them to care for their family yet still retain an income (possibly a second income for the household). Women’s changing roles in society has resulted in this workplace problem. Women are allowed and often encouraged to work but they are not rewarded or compensated at the same level, for their efforts, that men in the work force are. The pay gap would be narrowed if companies were more conducive to family schedules. Men and women would receive equal pay for the same job. Companies would benefit by retaining quality employees. Men and women need to start out making the same amount of money for the same job, companies need to offer women ample maternity leave, families need to be offered childcare (or childcare compensation), there needs to be a  flexible work environment, and men should never be discouraged from taking paternity leave. It seems that women workers have reached a plateau in society. In order for women to be respected (as men are) in the workplace there needs to be a redistribution of domestic and family work. It’s acceptable now for women to work; but this acceptance into the workforce has not drastically changed what they, women, are expected to perform at home. There is no way for women to move forward to equality in pay if they are not recognized as contributers to their job (i.e. women are still expected to perform outside of work in the family setting as well in a way that men are only expected to perform at work and not at home).

As soon as more domestic and family work is allocated to men then women will be able to attain equal pay. Women, with less work at home, will be able to commit to full time jobs, have to leave the workforce less, take less leave, and be able to climb the corporate ladder just as men are today.

Since 1942, gender inequality, at least in pay, can be traced. In 1942 the National War Labor Board issued a general order that authorized employers to make voluntary adjustments in salaries or pay in order to demonstrate gender equality (at least in jobs were women and men worked the exact same job and had comparable quality and quantity of work) (CNN). Rates of women in labor unions has been increasing since they have entered the workforce. Even with the increase of women union numbers this inequality of pay still exists. Women are encouraged by unions and other organizations to sue their employer if they are being treated unfairly in the workplace. Women are unlikely to pursue this option against their employers because of limited resources, i.e. money and time. 

Gender discrimination in the workplace is not only evident in the pay gap but also in sexual harassment and the “glass ceiling” in organizations. The term glass ceiling began as a reference to discrimination against women in the work force. “Glass ceiling” encompasses many different kinds of discrimination against women workers including but bot limited to: differences in pay for comparable work, sexual harassment in the workplace, and companies that do not have family-friendly policies. The glass ceiling is an unwritten rule in many businesses. The ceiling is an invisible barrier that usually affects minorities and women. This barrier is extremely debilitating for women in their job because it makes them feel inferior and that their bosses do not take them seriously because of their sex. Women feel that their bosses aren’t taking them seriously because the bosses do not view them as potential candidates for the most prestigious positions in the establishment. The glass ceiling is another oppressive means used by corporate America to keep women out of powerful positions and keep them from raking in a lot of money; in terms of their gross income. A study done by the U.S Department of Labor in 1991  reviewed nine Fortune 500 companies and the results confirmed that workers in these companies, minorities and women especially, came into contact with the invisible barrier, “the glass ceiling”, very early on in their careers. 

The U.S. Supreme Court has designated two different types of sexual harassment in workplaces: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is harassment that directly results  in an employment outcome (ex. the harasser would say that if you don’t do X you will lose your job). Sexual harassment of Type 2 is not nearly as direct but creates a hostile work environment for the harassed worker. This hostile in environment can be created by rude gestures, sabotaged work, inappropriate name calling, vulgar jokes, unnecessary touching, comment on the appearance of others (physical attributes), etc. 

Women are now surpassing men in the amount of education, in years and higher degrees, they have. If the workforce does not allow them to pursue executive career options then they will find themselves unable to fill these positions. Women in 1996 earned 1,255,057 college degrees as compared to men who earned 992,638 degrees (Career Planning). The ever increasing amount of women furthering their education makes them more likely to want to enter the job market. Also, the longer a woman is in school the longer she will be in the workforce, when she enters it, because it is likely that she will delay childbearing. Even though female graduates may be even more qualified for a position than her male counterpart the woman will be much more likely to be recommended for a job as an assistant or secretary job than the man. She will be told that this assistant or secretarial job is her way to get her foot in the door at the company. The employers will act like this is a typical entry-level position when in fact a man in the same situation will immediately begin at a much higher level in the company.

Women are over represented in the lower paying jobs in the company- almost all assistants and secretarial positions are filled by women while men crowd the top and fill the most prestigious positions in the company. This concentration of men at the top and women at the bottom is called “occupational segregation”. 

I began the Intro to Critical Feminist Studies course with a very clear idea of what feminism is yet I was hesitant to call myself a feminist. A feminist, to me, is someone who advocates for women’s rights and their equality as compared to men. Women and men are equal yet both are very different. A feminist is someone who capitalizes on and embraces the differences between men and women. Anyone can be a feminist but feminism, to me, means only advocating for women’s issues like gender discrimination in the workplace. Through the semester my definition of feminism has not changed drastically; yet I am much more willing to associate myself with this movement/name. My hesitation in calling myself a feminist was based on worries about the social implications of the word “feminist”. I don’t judge people merely because they attach this label to themselves or associate with other “feminists” so there must have been some deeper concern about the social implications of being one. a feminist. I don’t think that individuals necessarily associate being a feminist with negative things but that socially, in group situations and in the larger context of society and politics, being labeled as a feminist will limit your options. Specifically, I am concerned with the implications of being a “feminist” in the workplace. The workplace, to me, is the center of the politically correct and somehow labeling yourself a feminist makes you politically incorrect and socially awkward. Labeling yourself a feminist, ironically, attributes a male characteristic to you, i.e. confidence. Because feminists are labeled with this confidence and that they have such a clear idea of what injustices against women are they are outcasts. This topic, gender discrimination in the workplace, is related to a topic in my previous papers, women and healthcare. The job market is probably the most influential factor in an individual’s ability to obtain health insurance. This job-place discrimination against women indirectly affects the quality of healthcare available to most American women. It’s important to me to have equality in the workplace because I am a women and I don’t deserve to make less money than a male-counterpart just because of my sex. Even if it is the case that women are in and out of the labor force (more than men) because of familial obligations there is no cause for this discrimination in the workplace. Women are in and out of the labor market caring for men, men’s children, and men’s relatives yet women get paid less than men for the same job. There is even more cause for the wage gap to be closed because women’s roles are changing; many women are both mothers and workers. In the past, maybe it was OK (not just but socially acceptable) for women to make less money than men because men were the providers and the woman’s income was play money. This is no longer the case. Women are now equal providers for their family, possibly the bigger earner, and frequently the sole provider for their household (single moms etc.).

A female that just graduated from college with a major in marketing calls an agency to schedule an interview. She gets to the interview on time, well dressed, and ready to be hired. The interview proceeds and the interviewer is impressed with her resume; but is very interested in her typing speed. The interviewer takes the recent grad to another room, a computer lab, where she is sat down and prepared to take a typing test-to determine her words per minute. While typing, she sees an acquaintance of heres from school and he is applying to work for the agency as well.  Her male acquaintance is interviewed by the same person yet he is immediately suggested for a position in the company without taking a typing test. The interviewer suggested the taping test for the female grad because having good typing skills would help her get her “foot in the door”, i.e. she could start out as an assistant or secretary. Even though both prospective employees, the woman and the man, had equitable educations the woman was not encouraged/allowed by the interviewer to enter the ranks of the business as anyone but a secretary (Career Planning).

Some examples of gender discrimination in the workplace are: women not being hired for a position (which they are qualified for) because the company’s long-time clients feel more comfortable dealing with men, during company cutbacks men with the same job with less seniority keep their job over a woman who has been working for the company for a long time, and women not being able to attain a promotion even though they qualify for it (the woman has exemplary reviews and has earned many awards in her position (like employee of the year, etc.) the promotion is given to a a less qualified male). 

After the National War Labor Board issued general order sixteen the fight for equal pay continues. President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act in 1963. This Act signed by JFK applied to 27.5 million workers (both men and women) and required “employees doing work requiring equal skill, effort and responsibility- and work performed under similar working conditions-be paid equal wages” ( CNN). In subsequent years, following both the general order sixteen and the Equal Pay Act, numerous bills and acts have been passed to guarantee women and men equal pay for the same job; yet the pay gap still exists today. 

A more recent statistic on the pay difference, from 2000, found that women still make .80 cents to the dollar that’s paid to their male counterparts (GAO). A few women have been compensated for their lost wages. The Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, OFCCP, began reviewing corporate management systems in 1993. The OFCCP began the review process after President Bill Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. This Act protects workers jobs guaranteeing them at least twelve months of unpaid leave due to the birth of a child or extreme family circumstances (someone is very ill, etc.). These reviews of corporate management systems has been instrumental in paying back wages to women. One of the OFCCP’s reviews included an evaluation of Fairfax Hospital in Virginia. The hospital, as a result of it’s preliminary review by the OFCCP,  agreed to pay over $425,000 in back wages to 52 female workers ; these workers were “employed in the top six grades of the hospital’s personnel structure” (CNN). Also, after the hospital’s review they gave 44 out of the 52 women pay raises, which gave these individuals more than $178,000 (extra) in total. These raises account for more than $4,000 a year extra income for each woman. Out of all the corporate reviews by OFCCP, the largest settlement was with CoreStates Financial Institution in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a result of their review CoreStates paid more than 1.5 million dollars to women and minorities to compensate them for (past) pay discrimination. In addition to paying the 1.5 million dollars to workers CoreStates paid more than “334,000”, in salary adjustments to 76 women and 66 members of minorities” (CNN).  The monetary compensation does not address the root of why women are paid less than men. If companies are willing to settle with the OFCCP and pay lost wages to female workers then they obviously recognize the injustice they are committing in the pay scales. Even with the passage of numerous acts that require employers to give equal pay the gap still continues between women and men’s salaries. 

From the 1960’s when JFK signed the Equal Pay Act the number of women workers was at an all time high. From the beginning of the 60’s to the mid 70’s more than half the increase in the amount of workers in the labor force was made up of women. Most of these women were married and delayed having children so they  could stay in the labor force longer. Even though women’s primary obligations are to their families they still do remain in the workforce after having children. Families can’t make it without the second income provided by the female. Women are in and out of the labor force but only to recover from childbirth; the number of working moms in 2006 was over 2.6 million. More than 72 percent of mothers in the Unites States, with children under the age of 18, are either employed part or full-time.

Women are in hostile environments at home and at work. Women are paid less then men for the same job, are sexually harassed at work, and are cornered into low paying demeaning work. Even though women are expected to be equal providers for their family they are also expected to be the primary caretaker of their family. It is impossible for women to excel in both arenas if they are not granted equality. This equality would include either redistribution of domestic and family work (while women continue to work in the office) or equal respect for “women’s work” (women staying at home while men work in the office).

Works Cited

"Filing a Discrimination Claim-Pennsylvania." Workplace Fairness. 24 Oct. 2006. Workplace Fairness. 17 Dec. 2008 <>.

Keller, Larry. "Workplace gender gap Women and Men: Payday." Career Archives. 12 Dec. 2000.CNN.17 Dec. 2008 <>.

McKay, Dawn R. "Women Face Glass Ceiling in Hiring." 17 Dec. 2008 <>.

Porter, Eduardo. "Stretched to Limit, Women Stall March to Work." The New York Times 2 Mar. 2006.

Rep. No. GAO-04-35 at 1-65 (2003).

"Sex/Gender Discrimination." Sex/Gender Discrimination. 11 Oct. 2006. Workplace Fairness. 17 Dec. 2008 <>.

This report is based on gender discrimination in the workplace. Gender Discrimination in the workplace may occur in different ways. Although every country admits that gender inequity must be removed, it still is a big issue, especially for women. In most of the gender discrimination cases, the attitude of higher authorities was biased against victims (male, female, transgender). This attitude makes a hostile working environment for victims resulting in stress and lack of motivation in victims. We mentioned some of the famous incidents of gender discrimination of big organizations against their employees and fight back of those employees. We discussed current laws and possible future strategies to prevent such cases.

Gender Discrimination in the workplace is a huge problem even in the current modern world. Gender discrimination occurs when a person is treated in his job on the basis of his sex. This is a serious problem in developed, developing and least-developed countries. There are different ways through someone is discriminated at his workplace. Job hiring/firing, promotion, pay, harassment and job classification are some ways of gender discrimination in the workplace. This issue has been a topic of debate around the world. Different countries have made laws regarding gender discrimination in the workplace. But still, there are lots of cases of gender discrimination at workplaces. Even a developed country like the USA couldn’t eradicate this from American society despite having strict laws.

Any preference, importance or elimination made on the basis of gender or sex of an employee is considered as gender discrimination. If a company doesn’t provide equal opportunities to its employees then it is committing gender discrimination. It is unfair, unequal treatment in employment opportunities of an individual on the basis of his/her gender. Employment opportunities include promotions, an increase in pay and benefits. Mostly women are subject to gender discrimination but men can also be victims. Transgender are also the target of gender discrimination in the workplace.

Gender discrimination cases have been observed in private sector, businesses, NGOs as well as in government offices and educational institutions. Different salaries, facilities, working conditions, promotion opportunities and hiring criteria based on the gender of the employee are different scenarios of gender discrimination.

Data collected from different reports and researches shows trends of gender discrimination in developing, least developed and developed countries.

In 2006, a study conducted in Sweden revealed problems faced by women in public and private sector. The study showed that women having small kids suffer more problems in their careers. Young and elderly women also face a lot of problems in their jobs regardless of their skills and abilities. Women have had trouble in getting promotions and benefits. However, this study didn’t show any evidence regarding fewer job opportunities for women as compared to men. This study was also focused on effects of sticky floors and glass ceilings on women. (Bihagen & Ohils, 2006)

In 1999, there were almost 24000 complaints were registered with Equal Employment Opportunity Commission USA (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Sex-Based Charges FY 1992-FY 1999). There have been huge numbers of cases filed in US courts regarding gender discrimination. Most of the victims were women working as, receptionist, prison guard, factory workers, college professors and cashiers. These women faced gender discrimination in their respective fields by their superiors or co-workers. We have listed few of the famous cases of gender discrimination in the workplace in American society.

  • Federal Government agreed to pay $508 million to 1100 women in 2000. These women claimed that US information agency and voice of America didn’t give them jobs because of their gender. These women claimed that government adopted an unfair policy of keeping women away from technical jobs. And for this purpose, several unfair means were used to benefit male candidates. (MOLOTSKY)
  • Female employees of Del Laboratories went to court against one of their chief executive. These women claimed that they were harassed and abused by that chief executive and company tried to pressurize them to lie. These courageous women won the battle against discrimination and were paid $1.2 million by Del Laboratories. (GOLDBERG, 1996)
  • In 1996, a pathetic incidence of gender discrimination against women was highlighted. Female workers of a chili processing plant went to court. These women claimed that they were forced to wear diapers and denied bathroom breaks. On the other hand, male workers were given such breaks. The suit was settled for an unknown amount.
  • In 1998, Mitsubishi was blamed for allowing male senior staff to harass female staff. According to EEOC, almost 500 women were victims of such environment. Most of these women were harassed, abused and humiliated by their coworkers. Mitsubishi agreed to pay $34 million to settle the matter. (BRAUN, 1998)
  • District Attorney of Douglas County was blamed for discrimination by sex of his female employees. One of these employees claimed that attorney asked to interview female applicants but send them a letter of rejection.

In 2004, a report released by United Nations revealed that peacekeepers in Liberia exploited and abused young women. Culprits used food and money to abuse these young women. UN decided to send female peacekeepers to stop such issues.

A report made by Uzma Shoukat gives us a better perspective of literacy and women’s identity. She wrote in her report that identity of an individual is formed by factors like parents, society and environment. She found out that attitude of parents towards their kids play a major role in forming personality. She wrote that parents (mostly in South Asia) consider their daughters weak and vulnerable. This mentality is the initial step of discrimination. (Shoukat, 2004)

Gender Discrimination Examples

These are few examples of gender discrimination in the workplace.

If there are not equal promotion opportunities for male and female in an organization then there is gender discrimination present in that organization.

In most cases of gender discrimination, women are paid less than men working on the same position. Stats show that in America women only earn 77 cents as compared to one dollar earned by men.

In past, we’ve seen many examples that companies used to prefer men while hiring. There are several reasons for such incidents.

The following figure shows statistics of an interview. American men and women were asked if they faced discrimination in getting a promotion or new opportunities.

This research revealed that 15% of women think they were discriminated because of their gender. However, only 8% of men said that.

Many organizations are biased in providing opportunities. This biasness is mostly towards female employees. Even in the developed country like America, women claimed that they were denied of new opportunities because of their gender.

A case of denying career opportunities based on gender appeared in Good Year Tire Company. 800 female employees of this company claimed that they were denied of new opportunities because of their gender. The company agreed to pay $925000 for settlement.

Similar incidence happened in Svenska Handlesbanken, an international banking firm. Victoria Greenbaum was denied of vice presidency positions despite the recommendations of her seniors. Every time different explanation was given by the company for not appointing her to this post.


As we discussed earlier there are several factors which create a discriminatory environment mostly for women. Job capabilities, bargaining skills, nature of job and work-load are few issues. These are challenges which mostly women face while entering the job market and on the other hand men face several other challenges. Moreover, there is not much institutional support to decrease gender discrimination.

Although there are laws implemented but still not a country in the world has managed to eradicate gender discrimination completely. In the USA there are following laws implemented to prevent such behavior.

  • Civil rights act of 1964 (title VII):

This law prohibits discrimination based on gender, race, color and religion.

  • Equal Credit opportunity Law:

This law prohibits creditors from discriminating credit applicants.

This law was made to make sure that all employees of a company get paid equally.

  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act:

This law was made to protect female workers. It prohibits companies to discriminate against pregnant employees.

(Gender Discrimination: Applicable Laws)

Every country has laws which prohibit discrimination at workplace against any gender. We only mentioned laws of USA.

Regardless of these laws, there are still a lot of complaints about gender discrimination at workplace. These are few recommendations to prevent such cases.

  • Regular inspection of the government sector and private sector by an independent authority.
  • Implementing strong monitoring process at workplaces.
  • Raising awareness about gender discrimination at workplaces.
  • Implementing new laws to protect victims, especially women from gender discrimination.
  • These laws must be integrated with national policy for gender equality

Gender discrimination is a mentality. People accept discrimination at workplaces. To eradicate this psychology we need to empower our women. A better education opportunity is first step to for empowering women. We need to come up with more strategies, short term and long term goals for gender equity.


Gender discrimination in the workplace is unfair treatment of employees based on their gender. It is a civil rights violation. There are different forms of gender discrimination such as harassment, unequal pay, unequal career opportunities, pregnancy discrimination and discrimination in hiring. Unfortunately, most of the times women are subject to gender discrimination even in developed countries like the USA. However, there are laws implemented in USA and most of the other countries, which protects victims of gender discrimination.

The impacts of gender discrimination are very severe. In South Asia, many women quit their jobs because of the gender discrimination in the workplace. Lack of motivation, continuous tension, insecurity and stress are some of the impacts of the gender discrimination. Unfortunately, there is an increase in a number of complaints regarding facing gender discrimination in the workplace. Continuous monitoring of private and public sector by an independent authority, new laws integrated with national policy and strict punishments are possible solutions of the problem.

Also study: Gender Discrimination at Workplace & Gender and Human Rights

Works Cited:
  • Bihagen, E., & Ohils, M. (2006). The glass ceiling-where is it? Women’s and men’s career prospects in the private vs. the public sector in Sweden.
  • BRAUN, S. (1998). Mitsubishi to Pay $34 Million in Sex Harassment Case. Retrieved from
  • Gender Discrimination: Applicable Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • GOLDBERG, C. (1996). Employees Describe Sexual Harassment by Chief Executive. Retrieved from
  • MOLOTSKY, I. (n.d.). U.S. Is Offering Record Amount In Sex-Bias Suit. Retrieved from
  • Shoukat, U. (2004). Literacy and women’s identity, Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences: Endangered and Engendered.
  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Sex Based Charges FY 1992-FY 1999. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.


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