Bandura’s social cognitive theory puts more emphasis on social origins of behavior. His social cognitive approach focuses on cognitive factors that are central to human functioning. He defines human behavior as vibrant and reciprocal interaction of personal factors behavior and the environment.
The theory contends that behavior is largely regulated through cognitive processes. He adds that through the observations of models, an individual’s perceptions and action influence cognitive development. Bandura gives three types of models; live, symbolic and verbal instructions (Boeree, 2006).
The theory states that learning can occur in the absence of direct reinforcement; rather people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people and models. In learning, the learner must have a sense of self-efficacy which is termed as the learner’s belief that they can execute complex skills successfully.
This perception provides the learner with an ability of self- direction. The use of models influence learner’s self systems and as a result cognitive development becomes an independent process of observational learning.
Additionally, observational learning involved four main steps which include attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. The implication in psychotherapy is that if you get an individual with a psychological disorder to observe someone dealing with the same issues in a wide productive fashion, the first individual will learn by modeling the second person.
Bandura acknowledges that individual’s behavior is conditioned through the use of consequences. In psychotherapy, research is very vital and behaviorism is the most preferred approach (Bandura, 2001).
Another concept which is applied in psychotherapy is locus of control. For instance, when persons believe they can alter their situation, they are said to have an internal locus of control and when they believe they cannot alter their situations they are said to have an external locus of control.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 2, p. 4-7.
Boeree, G. (2006). Albert Bandura 1925- Present. Retrieved August 10, 2010 from http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/bandura. html.
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The Concept of Self-Efficacy Essay
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The Concept of Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy, for the purpose of this study, may be defined as a person’s optimistic self-belief. This is the belief that a person can develop the skills to perform new or difficult tasks to cope with changes in health and functioning. When a person perceives self-efficacy, it will facilitate goal-setting, effort, investment, persistence, overcoming obstacles and recovery from disappointments and failures. It can be regarded as a positive outlook or proactive way to handle stress factors. It is the ability to successfully cope with health changes, and implies an internal and stable acceptance of changes and ability to successfully adapt to those changes. Perceived self-efficacy is functional in…show more content…
Bandura focused on perceived self-efficacy, which he defines as a belief in one’s own capability to organize and execute the course of action required to attain a goal. (Bandura, 1977).
Health related research was stimulated by the social learning theory. Research showed that persons perceived level and strength of self-efficacy was closely related to their choices in health behaviors. (Maibach & Murphy, 1995). The desire to maintain new behaviors is usually related to the experience of success through self-efficacy and the mastery of new behaviors (O’Leary, 1985).
Efficacy is the behavior or being effective, efficacious and in control. The self can be defined as ones identity. This means that self-efficacy can be defined as the ability to effectively control their own outcomes by changing their actions. It is the self-regulation of behavior by intelligent, affective and motivational processes. Self-efficacy is made up by self-concept, control, and cognitive processes. Ones self-concept is their thoughts and feelings about who and what they are; it is influenced by social interactions and experiences. It has to do with an innate set of morals, values and attitudes that is developed through ones interaction with their environment. Self-regulation allows one to behave in a way to maintain a positive self-concept in a dynamic and interactive world. Self-image, self-esteem and self-concept all interact to influence a persons