How To Write A Research Paper For Middle School Science

With science fair season coming up as well as many end of the year projects, students are often required to write a research paper or a report on their project. Use this guide to help you in the process from finding a topic to revising and editing your final paper.

Brainstorming Topics

Sometimes one of the largest barriers to writing a research paper is trying to figure out what to write about. Many times the topic is supplied by the teacher, or the curriculum tells what the student should research and write about. However, this is not always the case. Sometimes the student is given a very broad concept to write a research paper on, for example, water. Within the category of water, there are many topics and subtopics that would be appropriate. Topics about water can include anything from the three states of water, different water sources, minerals found in water, how water is used by living organisms, the water cycle, or how to find water in the desert. The point is that “water” is a very large topic and would be too broad to be adequately covered in a typical 3-5 page research paper.

When given a broad category to write about, it is important to narrow it down to a topic that is much more manageable. Sometimes research needs to be done in order to find the best topic to write about. (Look for searching tips in “Finding and Gathering Information.”) Listed below are some tips and guidelines for picking a suitable research topic:

  • Pick a topic within the category that you find interesting. It makes it that much easier to research and write about a topic if it interests you.
  • You may find while researching a topic that the details of the topic are very boring to you. If this is the case, and you have the option to do this, change your topic.
  • Pick a topic that you are already familiar with and research further into that area to build on your current knowledge.
  • When researching topics to do your paper on, look at how much information you are finding. If you are finding very little information on your topic or you are finding an overwhelming amount, you may need to rethink your topic.
  • If permissible, always leave yourself open to changing your topic. While researching for topics, you may come across one that you find really interesting and can use just as well as the previous topics you were searching for.
  • Most importantly, does your research topic fit the guidelines set forth by your teacher or curriculum?

Finding and Gathering Information

There are numerous resources out there to help you find information on the topic selected for your research paper. One of the first places to begin research is at your local library. Use the Dewey Decimal System or ask the librarian to help you find books related to your topic. There are also a variety of reference materials, such as encyclopedias, available at the library.

A relatively new reference resource has become available with the power of technology – the Internet. While the Internet allows the user to access a wealth of information that is often more up-to-date than printed materials such as books and encyclopedias, there are certainly drawbacks to using it. It can be hard to tell whether or not a site contains factual information or just someone’s opinion. A site can also be dangerous or inappropriate for students to use.

You may find that certain science concepts and science terminology are not easy to find in regular dictionaries and encyclopedias. A science dictionary or science encyclopedia can help you find more in-depth and relevant information for your science report. If your topic is very technical or specific, reference materials such as medical dictionaries and chemistry encyclopedias may also be good resources to use.

If you are writing a report for your science fair project, not only will you be finding information from published sources, you will also be generating your own data, results, and conclusions. Keep a journal that tracks and records your experiments and results. When writing your report, you can either write out your findings from your experiments or display them using graphs or charts.

*As you are gathering information, keep a working bibliography of where you found your sources. Look under “Citing Sources” for more information. This will save you a lot of time in the long run!

Organizing Information

Most people find it hard to just take all the information they have gathered from their research and write it out in paper form. It is hard to get a starting point and go from the beginning to the end. You probably have several ideas you know you want to put in your paper, but you may be having trouble deciding where these ideas should go. Organizing your information in a way where new thoughts can be added to a subtopic at any time is a great way to organize the information you have about your topic. Here are two of the more popular ways to organize information so it can be used in a research paper:

  1. Graphic organizers such as a web or mind map. Mind maps are basically stating the main topic of your paper, then branching off into as many subtopics as possible about the main topic. Enchanted Learning has a list of several different types of mind maps as well as information on how to use them and what topics fit best for each type of mind map and graphic organizer.
  2. General to specific list. This method is similar to using a mind map except it is used in a linear list fashion by stating the topic and then listing the supporting details underneath. The general to specific list method works best when using a computer because ideas can easily be added without the information becoming “squashed” as would happen when it is written out. This method works in the following format:I. Topic ~ Water as a solid in nature
    1. Subtopic: Glaciers – large masses of ice on land
      1. Sub-Subtopic: Low temperatures and adequate amounts of snow are needed to form glaciers.
      2. Sub-Subtopic: Glaciers move large amounts of earth and debris.
      3. Sub-Subtopic: Two basic types of glaciers: valley and continental.
    2. Subtopic: Icebergs – large masses of ice floating on liquid water

    II. Topic ~ Water as a liquid in nature

Different Formats For Your Paper

Depending on your topic and your writing preference, the layout of your paper can greatly enhance how well the information on your topic is displayed.

  1. Process. This method is used to explain how something is done or how it works by listing the steps of the process. For most science fair projects and science experiments, this is the best format. Reports for science fairs need the entire project written out from start to finish. Your report should include a title page, statement of purpose, hypothesis, materials and procedures, results and conclusions, discussion, and credits and bibliography. If applicable, graphs, tables, or charts should be included with the results portion of your report.
  2. Cause and effect. This is another common science experiment research paper format. The basic premise is that because event X happened, event Y happened.
  3. Specific to general. This method works best when trying to draw conclusions about how little topics and details are connected to support one main topic or idea.
  4. Climatic order. Similar to the “specific to general” category, here details are listed in order from least important to most important.
  5. General to specific. Works in a similar fashion as the method for organizing your information. The main topic or subtopic is stated first, followed by supporting details that give more information about the topic.
  6. Compare and contrast. This method works best when you wish to show the similarities and/or differences between two or more topics. A block pattern is used when you first write about one topic and all its details and then write about the second topic and all its details. An alternating pattern can be used to describe a detail about the first topic and then compare that to the related detail of the second topic. The block pattern and alternating pattern can also be combined to make a format that better fits your research paper.

Citing Sources

When writing a research paper, you must cite your sources! Otherwise you are plagiarizing (claiming someone else’s ideas as your own) which can cause severe penalties from failing your research paper assignment in primary and secondary grades to failing the entire course (most colleges and universities have this policy). To help you avoid plagiarism, follow these simple steps:

  1. Find out what format for citing your paper your teacher or curriculum wishes you to use. One of the most widely used and widely accepted citation formats by scholars and schools is the Modern Language Association (MLA) format. We recommended that you do an Internet search for the most recent format of the citation style you will be using in your paper.
  2. Keep a working bibliography when researching your topic. Have a document in your computer files or a page in your notebook where you write down every source that you found and may use in your paper. (You probably will not use every resource you find, but it is much easier to delete unused sources later rather than try to find them four weeks down the road.) To make this process even easier, write the source down in the citation format that will be used in your paper. No matter what citation format you use, you should always write down title, author, publisher, published date, page numbers used, and if applicable, the volume and issue number.
  3. When collecting ideas and information from your sources, write the author’s last name at the end of the idea. When revising and formatting your paper, keep the author’s last name attached to the end of the idea, no matter where you move that idea. This way, you won’t have to go back and try to remember where the ideas in your paper came from.
  4. There are two ways to use the information in your paper: paraphrasing and quotes. The majority of your paper will be paraphrasing the information you found. Paraphrasing is basically restating the idea being used in your own words.   As a general rule of thumb, no more than two of the original words should be used in sequence when paraphrasing information, and similes should be used for as many of the words as possible in the original passage without changing the meaning of the main point. Sometimes, you may find something stated so well by the original author that it would be best to use the author’s original words in your paper. When using the author’s original words, use quotation marks only around the words being directly quoted and work the quote into the body of your paper so that it makes sense grammatically. Search the Internet for more rules on paraphrasing and quoting information.

Revising and Editing Your Paper

Revising your paper basically means you are fixing grammatical errors or changing the meaning of what you wrote. After you have written the rough draft of your paper, read through it again to make sure the ideas in your paper flow and are cohesive. You may need to add in information, delete extra information, use a thesaurus to find a better word to better express a concept, reword a sentence, or just make sure your ideas are stated in a logical and progressive order.

After revising your paper, go back and edit it, correcting the capitalization, punctuation, and spelling errors – the mechanics of writing. If you are not 100% positive a word is spelled correctly, look it up in a dictionary. Ask a parent or teacher for help on the proper usage of commas, hyphens, capitalization, and numbers. You may also be able to find the answers to these questions by doing an Internet search on writing mechanics or by checking you local library for a book on writing mechanics.

It is also always a good idea to have someone else read your paper. Because this person did not write the paper and is not familiar with the topic, he or she is more likely to catch mistakes or ideas that do not quite make sense. This person can also give you insights or suggestions on how to reword or format your paper to make it flow better or convey your ideas better.

More Information:

  • Virginia Kearney 13 days agofrom United States

    Hi Selena. For a science journal, you need to record the date, the information you get from a source and the bibliographical information. Generally, I suggest that students write a short summary of the information they get from a source and then their response to that information, which can include what they learned, what questions the information made you think about, and what you thought was useful or important.

  • Selena Leong 2 weeks ago

    This real helped me I was looking for topics for my research paper for days. Great thanks alot.

    Any advice on how to write a science journal ?

  • Virginia Kearney 2 weeks agofrom United States

    Hi Gloria, there are some life science samples in the topics above. Here are a couple more:

    How is DNA analysis of ancient bones changing our concept of the evolutionary tree?

    How is Biopharma changing healthcare?

  • Yolo 2 weeks ago

    Thanks so much

  • Gloria T. Jauod. 2 weeks ago

    I haven't tried doing science research but I want to try. I am interested on life science. Could you give me some samples?

  • Donald Trump 2 weeks ago

    Good topics

  • JEROME 3 weeks ago

    LOVE SCIENCE

  • Nkateko 5 weeks ago

    Thanks for your idears they are so helpful

  • Virginia Kearney 7 weeks agofrom United States

    That's a good idea explorer.

  • explorer1234 7 weeks ago

    More topics related to space science would be great!

  • Valerie Chan 7 weeks ago

    Interesting research on a great app for me to get a great time to share.

  • Angelyn 7 weeks ago

    I love all the topics. All of it are interesting. Well, i need something for my research that the output will be tangible or can be use by others. Thanks for the help.

  • Alice 2 months ago

    can you do a topic on drugs cigarettes and smoking?

  • Jerome Allen 2 months ago

    This is a very great website

  • Virginia Kearney 2 months agofrom United States

    Hi Bella--You need to look at my science fair article about growing flowers.

  • bella 2 months ago

    hi love the articles but Im doing a lab that the title is: will a flower grow faster and more efficiently in cold or hot water but I don't know that purpose is? or the hypothesis.

  • katie eldeen 2 months ago

    ok thankyou so much you have been very helpful I think I have a pretty good idea of what I'm going to do

  • Virginia Kearney 3 months agofrom United States

    Hi Katie--I'd start with an example of when the physics of motion is helpful, or used, or happens in daily life. To decide which sort of motion to research, I'd go to some physics websites (or even Wikipedia) and look up the different kinds and see which one you find most interesting, or which one you think you could find the most information about. Sometimes, I suggest that before choosing a topic that students do some preliminary research, looking for information. If you can't find anything useful in 30 minutes or so, you should probably choose another topic.

  • katie eldeen 3 months ago

    hi Virginia, I love your articles. I'm doing a 10-15 page research paper on physics of motion. this is a huge topic and I really need a good attention grabber. I have no idea what section of motion I'm going to be discussing, I also need some advice there. if you could help I would really appreciate it

  • lilibethlopez0123@gmail.com 3 months ago

    I need this for my science and research class. I could see it's of great help.

  • Virginia Kearney 3 months agofrom United States

    Hi Mega Sai, It would be a good idea for you to look at my other articles about how to write research papers and argument papers.

  • Mega Sai 3 months ago

    hi ,i am so much intrested in doing research on an intresting topic thatsy i have selected the topic related to nano materials.can any one give an idea how to approach in the topic related to nanomaterials

  • Virginia Kearney 3 months agofrom United States

    Hi Katie--You might want to look at my article on Technology topics because that has information about physical science topics. If you are working on Creationism, you might want to see my article about "Can Christians believe in Evolution?

  • katie eldeen 3 months ago

    I need a cool topic about physical science, can you help?

  • Virginia Kearney 4 months agofrom United States

    Good point, Jenna--I'll add a Chemistry section.

  • Virginia Kearney 4 months agofrom United States

    Good point Jenna--I'll add a Chemistry section.

  • Virginia Kearney 4 months agofrom United States

    Yes, Eli--astronomy is the study of the universe and that is part of science.

  • Virginia Kearney 5 months agofrom United States

    Marley, you have a good idea about endangered animals. Here are some samples: How do we best save endangered animals? Or you can pick a specific one to talk about. How do we balance the interests of people and animals on our planet? Does buying up land and setting it aside as a nature refuge work to save endangered animals? Does Ecotourism help save endangered animals?

  • Marley 5 months ago

    Maybe topics about endangered animals? Those are very interesting to me and other people.

  • Dameon 5 months ago

    infectious diseases like the flesh eating disease is interesting to read about.

  • lauren 5 months ago

    really interested in molecular biology and genome mapping

  • Virginia Kearney 5 months agofrom United States

    Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is available on that topic. You can search for "dog communication" in Google Scholar to get some idea of any studies that have already been done.

  • Samantha 5 months ago

    we are doing a project for science and i want to do a project on how dogs communicate, would that be related to science?

  • lol 5 months ago

    lol lol lol lol

  • mahnoor 5 months ago

    please add some plant related topics

  • Anonymous 6 months ago

    Interested in animals

  • maria 6 months ago

    interested in moleculer biology and medicine

  • Ahmed 6 months ago

    I am Interest in Data and communication network specially in performance analysis of VoIP over Wimax networks

  • Tshivhinda Murunwa 6 months ago

    Thank you so much

  • Virginia Kearney 6 months agofrom United States

    Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions. Look at my profile for ideas.

  • Riley Bozarth 6 months ago

    Plenty of cool topics in the Astronomy and Physics category

  • Celeste 6 months ago

    I am at school and I wanna ask. What would be a good project for science research class? Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'. It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff?

  • Virginia Kearney 6 months agofrom United States

    EunJae, you might want to look at my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture.

  • EunJae 6 months ago

    How about in agricultural aspects? Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Thank you.

  • kabiru 6 months ago

    it was interesting

  • Yusuf kurt 6 months ago

    I'm really interested in theoretical physics

  • Virginia Kearney 7 months agofrom United States

    Hi Lily, I have a lot of different science fair projects I have designed. The one that seems to suit your idea best is "How does salt water affect seed germination." It is on owlcation, and you can find it by searching my profile page or googling it, or this link: https://owlcation.com/stem/Science-Project-How-Doe...

  • Lily 7 months ago

    Hi Virginia. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for a topic. So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and "destruction" as my heading because I was going to conduct an experiment on something else. But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project. So do you have any ideas of what I could say that has anything to do with the destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP. Thanks xxx

  • alamira.alwiraikat@gmail.com 7 months ago

    Thank you for this information and I am learning from you

  • Virginia Kearney 7 months agofrom United States

    Hi Annie, you might try one of the following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to help students retain information? Which type of multi media teaching method is most effective for science students?

  • Annie Blase 7 months ago

    hi! ..I would like to have a research on teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic? Thank you..

  • Virginia Kearney 8 months agofrom United States

    Jessica--Good topic idea! Something like: What is the value of space exploration of other planets for humans?

  • Jessica Jones 8 months ago

    I think something on how looking at other planets in the universe helps us learn more about our own would be a good topic

  • Virginia Kearney 8 months agofrom United States

    Hi Suzie! You've come to the right place. I have over 100 articles on writing and other articles on doing science projects. You can see my articles under my profile or just search for a topic. You can also see other articles written by me linked on the side.

  • Suzie Sheep 8 months ago

    Hello Mrs. I would like some more tips for my students in my class. They all need a project on something. Cheers.

  • Mini 8 months ago

    Thank you so much ma'am

  • Virginia Kearney 8 months agofrom United States

    Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for the suggestion. Here are a couple of ideas taken from currently important research: What is the recent update on the Corynebacterium species and their clinical significance? What are the best ways for medical personnel to handle the growing problem of antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to treat bacteria?

  • Mini 

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