11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously
A seasoned editor gives advice to get your work published in an international journal
By Angel Borja, PhD Posted on 24 June 2014
How to Prepare a Manuscript for International Journals — Part 2
In this monthly series, Dr. Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript (author's view), the evaluation process (reviewer's view) and what there is to hate or love in a paper (editor's view).
This article is the second in the series. The first article was: "Six things to do before writing your manuscript."[divider]
Dr. Angel Borja is Head of Projects at AZTI-Tecnalia, a research center in the Basque Country in Spain specializing in marine research and food technologies. Formerly he was also Head of the Department of Oceanography and Head of the Marine Management Area. His main topic of investigation is marine ecology, and has published more than 270 contributions, from which 150 are in over 40 peer-reviewed journals, through his long career of 32 years of research. During this time he has investigated in multiple topics and ecosystem components, having an ample and multidisciplinary view of marine research.
Dr. Borja is the Editor of several journals, including Frontiers in Marine Ecosystem Ecology, Revista de Investigación Marina, Elsevier's Journal of Sea Research and Continental Shelf Research. In addition, he is a member of the editorial boards of Elsevier's Marine Pollution Bulletin, Ecological Indicators and Ocean & Coastal Management.
Read more about his work on ResearchGate, ORCID and LinkedIn, and follow him on Twitter (@AngelBorjaYerro).
When you organize your manuscript, the first thing to consider is that the order of sections will be very different than the order of items on you checklist.
An article begins with the Title, Abstract and Keywords.
The article text follows the IMRAD format, which responds to the questions below:
- Introduction: What did you/others do? Why did you do it?
- Methods: How did you do it?
- Results: What did you find?
- Discussion: What does it all mean?
The main text is followed by the Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References and Supporting Materials.
While this is the published structure, however, we often use a different order when writing.
Steps to organizing your manuscript
- Prepare the figures and tables.
- Write the Methods.
- Write up the Results.
- Write the Discussion. Finalize the Results and Discussion before writing the introduction. This is because, if the discussion is insufficient, how can you objectively demonstrate the scientific significance of your work in the introduction?
- Write a clear Conclusion.
- Write a compelling introduction.
- Write the Abstract.
- Compose a concise and descriptive Title.
- Select Keywords for indexing.
- Write the Acknowledgements.
- Write up the References.
Next, I'll review each step in more detail. But before you set out to write a paper, there are two important things you should do that will set the groundwork for the entire process.
- The topic to be studied should be the first issue to be solved. Define your hypothesis and objectives (These will go in the Introduction.)
- Review the literature related to the topic and select some papers (about 30) that can be cited in your paper (These will be listed in the References.)
Finally, keep in mind that each publisher has its own style guidelines and preferences, so always consult the publisher's Guide for Authors.[divider]
Step 1: Prepare the figures and tables
Remember that "a figure is worth a thousand words." Hence, illustrations, including figures and tables, are the most efficient way to present your results. Your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical!
How do you decide between presenting your data as tables or figures? Generally, tables give the actual experimental results, while figures are often used for comparisons of experimental results with those of previous works, or with calculated/theoretical values (Figure 1).
Whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript.
Another important factor: figure and table legends must be self-explanatory (Figure 2).
When presenting your tables and figures, appearances count! To this end:
- Avoid crowded plots (Figure 3), using only three or four data sets per figure; use well-selected scales.
- Think about appropriate axis label size
- Include clear symbols and data sets that are easy to distinguish.
- Never include long boring tables (e.g., chemical compositions of emulsion systems or lists of species and abundances). You can include them as supplementary material.
If you are using photographs, each must have a scale marker, or scale bar, of professional quality in one corner.
In photographs and figures, use color only when necessary when submitting to a print publication. If different line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects or you will be charged with expensive fees. Of course, this does not apply to online journals. For many journals, you can submit duplicate figures: one in color for the online version of the journal and pdfs, and another in black and white for the hardcopy journal (Figure 4).
Another common problem is the misuse of lines and histograms. Lines joining data only can be used when presenting time series or consecutive samples data (e.g., in a transect from coast to offshore in Figure 5). However, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms (Figure 5).
Sometimes, fonts are too small for the journal. You must take this into account, or they may be illegible to readers (Figure 6).
Finally, you must pay attention to the use of decimals, lines, etc. (Figure 7)
Step 2: Write the Methods
This section responds to the question of how the problem was studied. If your paper is proposing a new method, you need to include detailed information so a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment.
However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use References and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures. Broad summaries or key references are sufficient.
Length of the manuscript
Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only. Here are some general guidelines:
- Title: Short and informative
- Abstract: 1 paragraph (<250 words)
- Introduction: 1.5-2 pages
- Methods: 2-3 pages
- Results: 6-8 pages
- Discussion: 4-6 pages
- Conclusion: 1 paragraph
- Figures: 6-8 (one per page)
- Tables: 1-3 (one per page)
- References: 20-50 papers (2-4 pages)
Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect methods descriptions and may recommend rejection, because this section is critical in the process of reproducing your investigation. In this way, all chemicals must be identified. Do not use proprietary, unidentifiable compounds.
To this end, it's important to use standard systems for numbers and nomenclature. For example:
Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the experiment of investigation repeatable.
List the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research:
- Description of the site
- Description of the surveys or experiments done, giving information on dates, etc.
- Description of the laboratory methods, including separation or treatment of samples, analytical methods, following the order of waters, sediments and biomonitors. If you have worked with different biodiversity components start from the simplest (i.e. microbes) to the more complex (i.e. mammals)
- Description of the statistical methods used (including confidence levels, etc.)
In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and discussion, which is a common error.[divider]
Step 3: Write up the Results
This section responds to the question "What have you found?" Hence, only representative results from your research should be presented. The results should be essential for discussion.
- Indicate the statistical tests used with all relevant parameters: e.g., mean and standard deviation (SD): 44% (±3); median and interpercentile range: 7 years (4.5 to 9.5 years).
- Use mean and standard deviation to report normally distributed data.
- Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data.
- For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary (2.08, not 2.07856444).
- Never use percentages for very small samples e.g., "one out of two" should not be replaced by 50%.
However, remember that most journals offer the possibility of adding Supporting Materials, so use them freely for data of secondary importance. In this way, do not attempt to "hide" data in the hope of saving it for a later paper. You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion. If data are too abundant, you can use those supplementary materials.
Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's Guide for Authors.
For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand. Generally, this will be in the same order as presented in the methods section.
An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you are presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section.[divider]
Step 4: Write the Discussion
Here you must respond to what the results mean. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. This is because it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion is weak.
You need to make the Discussion corresponding to the Results, but do not reiterate the results. Here you need to compare the published results by your colleagues with yours (using some of the references included in the Introduction). Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better.
Take into account the following tips:
1. Avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support.
2. Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". Quantitative descriptions are always preferred (35ºC, 0.5%, p<0.001, respectively).
3. Avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here.
4. Speculations on possible interpretations are allowed, but these should be rooted in fact, rather than imagination. To achieve good interpretations think about:
- How do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section?
- Do the data support your hypothesis?
- Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?
- Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. If your results were unexpected, try to explain why
- Is there another way to interpret your results?
- What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results?
- Explain what is new without exaggerating
5. Revision of Results and Discussion is not just paper work. You may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations. Sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been studied substantially.[divider]
Step 5: Write a clear Conclusion
This section shows how the work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. In some journals, it's a separate section; in others, it's the last paragraph of the Discussion section. Whatever the case, without a clear conclusion section, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge your work and whether it merits publication in the journal.
A common error in this section is repeating the abstract, or just listing experimental results. Trivial statements of your results are unacceptable in this section.
You should provide a clear scientific justification for your work in this section, and indicate uses and extensions if appropriate. Moreover, you can suggest future experiments and point out those that are underway.
You can propose present global and specific conclusions, in relation to the objectives included in the introduction.[divider]
Step 6: Write a compelling Introduction
This is your opportunity to convince readers that you clearly know why your work is useful.
A good introduction should answer the following questions:
- What is the problem to be solved?
- Are there any existing solutions?
- Which is the best?
- What is its main limitation?
- What do you hope to achieve?
Editors like to see that you have provided a perspective consistent with the nature of the journal. You need to introduce the main scientific publications on which your work is based, citing a couple of original and important works, including recent review articles.
However, editors hate improper citations of too many references irrelevant to the work, or inappropriate judgments on your own achievements. They will think you have no sense of purpose.
Here are some additional tips for the introduction:
- Never use more words than necessary (be concise and to-the-point). Don't make this section into a history lesson. Long introductions put readers off.
- We all know that you are keen to present your new data. But do not forget that you need to give the whole picture at first.
- The introduction must be organized from the global to the particular point of view, guiding the readers to your objectives when writing this paper.
- State the purpose of the paper and research strategy adopted to answer the question, but do not mix introduction with results, discussion and conclusion. Always keep them separate to ensure that the manuscript flows logically from one section to the next.
- Hypothesis and objectives must be clearly remarked at the end of the introduction.
- Expressions such as "novel," "first time," "first ever," and "paradigm-changing" are not preferred. Use them sparingly.
Step 7: Write the Abstract
The abstract tells prospective readers what you did and what the important findings in your research were. Together with the title, it's the advertisement of your article. Make it interesting and easily understood without reading the whole article. Avoid using jargon, uncommon abbreviations and references.
You must be accurate, using the words that convey the precise meaning of your research. The abstract provides a short description of the perspective and purpose of your paper. It gives key results but minimizes experimental details. It is very important to remind that the abstract offers a short description of the interpretation/conclusion in the last sentence.
A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered.
However, the abstracts must be keep as brief as possible. Just check the 'Guide for authors' of the journal, but normally they have less than 250 words. Here's a good example on a short abstract.
In an abstract, the two whats are essential. Here's an example from an article I co-authored in Ecological Indicators:
- What has been done? "In recent years, several benthic biotic indices have been proposed to be used as ecological indicators in estuarine and coastal waters. One such indicator, the AMBI (AZTI Marine Biotic Index), was designed to establish the ecological quality of European coasts. The AMBI has been used also for the determination of the ecological quality status within the context of the European Water Framework Directive. In this contribution, 38 different applications including six new case studies (hypoxia processes, sand extraction, oil platform impacts, engineering works, dredging and fish aquaculture) are presented."
- What are the main findings? "The results show the response of the benthic communities to different disturbance sources in a simple way. Those communities act as ecological indicators of the 'health' of the system, indicating clearly the gradient associated with the disturbance."
Step 8: Compose a concise and descriptive title
The title must explain what the paper is broadly about. It is your first (and probably only) opportunity to attract the reader's attention. In this way, remember that the first readers are the Editor and the referees. Also, readers are the potential authors who will cite your article, so the first impression is powerful!
We are all flooded by publications, and readers don't have time to read all scientific production. They must be selective, and this selection often comes from the title.
Reviewers will check whether the title is specific and whether it reflects the content of the manuscript. Editors hate titles that make no sense or fail to represent the subject matter adequately. Hence, keep the title informative and concise (clear, descriptive, and not too long). You must avoid technical jargon and abbreviations, if possible. This is because you need to attract a readership as large as possible. Dedicate some time to think about the title and discuss it with your co-authors.
Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them:
- Original title: Preliminary observations on the effect of salinity on benthic community distribution within a estuarine system, in the North Sea
- Revised title: Effect of salinity on benthic distribution within the Scheldt estuary (North Sea)
- Comments: Long title distracts readers. Remove all redundancies such as "studies on," "the nature of," etc. Never use expressions such as "preliminary." Be precise.
- Original title: Action of antibiotics on bacteria
- Revised title: Inhibition of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by streptomycin
- Comments: Titles should be specific. Think about "how will I search for this piece of information" when you design the title.
- Original title: Fabrication of carbon/CdS coaxial nanofibers displaying optical and electrical properties via electrospinning carbon
- Revised title: Electrospinning of carbon/CdS coaxial nanofibers with optical and electrical properties
- Comments: "English needs help. The title is nonsense. All materials have properties of all varieties. You could examine my hair for its electrical and optical properties! You MUST be specific. I haven't read the paper but I suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them?" – the Editor-in-Chief.
Try to avoid this kind of response! [divider]
Step 9: Select keywords for indexing
Keywords are used for indexing your paper. They are the label of your manuscript. It is true that now they are less used by journals because you can search the whole text. However, when looking for keywords, avoid words with a broad meaning and words already included in the title.
Some journals require that the keywords are not those from the journal name, because it is implicit that the topic is that. For example, the journal Soil Biology & Biochemistry requires that the word "soil" not be selected as a keyword.
Only abbreviations firmly established in the field are eligible (e.g., TOC, CTD), avoiding those which are not broadly used (e.g., EBA, MMI).
Again, check the Guide for Authors and look at the number of keywords admitted, label, definitions, thesaurus, range, and other special requests. [divider]
Step 10: Write the Acknowledgements
Here, you can thank people who have contributed to the manuscript but not to the extent where that would justify authorship. For example, here you can include technical help and assistance with writing and proofreading. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship.
In the case of European projects, do not forget to include the grant number or reference. Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e.g., "This is publication number 657 from AZTI-Tecnalia."[divider]
Step 11: Write up the References
Typically, there are more mistakes in the references than in any other part of the manuscript. It is one of the most annoying problems, and causes great headaches among editors. Now, it is easier since to avoid these problem, because there are many available tools.
In the text, you must cite all the scientific publications on which your work is based. But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references – it doesn't make a better manuscript! Avoid excessive self-citations and excessive citations of publications from the same region.
Minimize personal communications, do not include unpublished observations, manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted for publication, publications that are not peer reviewed, grey literature, or articles not published in English.
You can use any software, such as EndNote or Mendeley, to format and include your references in the paper. Most journals have now the possibility to download small files with the format of the references, allowing you to change it automatically. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here.
Make the reference list and the in-text citation conform strictly to the style given in the Guide for Authors. Remember that presentation of the references in the correct format is the responsibility of the author, not the editor. Checking the format is normally a large job for the editors. Make their work easier and they will appreciate the effort.
Finally, check the following:
- Spelling of author names
- Year of publications
- Usages of "et al."
- Whether all references are included
In my next article, I will give tips for writing the manuscript, authorship, and how to write a compelling cover letter. Stay tuned![divider]
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General Format for Writing a Scientific Paper
Scientists have established the following format for "scientific papers”. A complete paper is divided into sections, in this order...
· Title Page
· Materials and Methods
Although this format is not cast in stone, most scientific journals use it or some variation there of. By adhering to this format, researchers maintain a consistent and efficient means of communicating with the scientific community. This order is really quite logical and could apply to almost any report you might write. You can benefit from writing good scientific papers, even if you do not expect to go on in Biology. Preparing a scientific paper develops your ability to organize ideas logically, think clearly, and express yourself accurately and concisely. Mastery of these skills would be an asset for any career that you may pursue.
All papers should be typed, double-spaced (except the abstract), with at least one-inch margins on all sides. Any statements not original to you should be properly cited in the text using, and listed in the “References” section at the end of your paper using the style explained at the end of this appendix.
The title page is the first page of the paper and should contain the following:
· An informative title
· Your full name or, if a group report, the full names of all group members
· Course number
· Instructor’s name
· Your lab day and time
· Due date for the paper
A good title is informative, i.e. it summarizes as specifically, accurately, and concisely as possible what the paper is about. For example, if you were investigating the effect of temperature on the feeding preferences of a certain type of caterpillar found on tobacco plants, acceptable titles might be “Effect of Temperature on the Feeding Preferences of the Tobacco Hornworm Larvae, Manduca sexta”, or “Does Temperature Influence which Diet the Tobacco Hornworm Larvae, Manduca sexta, will Select? The following titles would be uninformative and too general: “Effect of Temperature on Caterpillars”; “How Temperature Affects the Tobacco Horworm Larvae, Manduca sexta”; “What is the Preferred Diet of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta?”
The second page of scientific paper begins with the Abstract. The Abstract states clearly and concisely what is dealt with in the paper. It is a concise statement of the questions, general procedure, basic findings, and main conclusions of the paper. This is a brief, all encompassing section summarizing what you discuss in the rest of the paper, and should be written last, after you know what you have said! The abstract should be written as one single-spaced paragraph (all other sections are double-spaced), and must not exceed 200-250 words.
A good “Abstract”...
· states the question investigated and the principal objectives of the investigation,
· specifies the scientific context of your experiment,
· summarizes what you did,
· summarizes your results, and
· states your major conclusions.
The Introduction presents a background for the work you are doing and put it into an appropriate context (e.g. scientific principles, environmental issues, etc.). What questions are you asking in your study? What organisms or ideas were studied and why are they interesting or relevant? Identify the subject(s) and hypotheses of your work. Tell the reader why (s)he should keep reading and why what you are about to present is interesting. Briefly state your general approach or methods (e.g. experimental, observational, computer simulation, a combination of these, etc.) as a lead-in to the next section. Cite any references you used as sources for your background Information. Any statements not original to you should be properly cited in the text using the scientific citation style, and listed in the “References” section at the end of your paper.
This section should be written in the past tense when referring to this experiment. However, use the present tense when discussing another investigator’s published work. Why? Previously published work is considered part of the present body of knowledge.
A good “Introduction” will....
· include a clear statement of the problem or question addressed in the experiment,
· state the hypothesis or hypotheses that you tested in the study,
· put the question into some context by stating why this is an important question to be answered and/or why you found this to be a particularly interesting question,
· state the objectives of the research,
· address how the research helps to fill holes in our knowledge,
· include any background material that is particularly relevant to the question,
· give a brief overview of the method of the investigation. If deemed necessary, the reasons for the choice of a particular method should be stated, and
· state the principle results and conclusions of the investigation. Do not keep the reader in suspense. Let the reader follow the development of the evidence.
Materials and Methods
The “Materials and Methods” section tells how the work was done. There should be enough detail that a competent worker can repeat the experiments. What procedures were followed? Are the treatments and controls clearly described? Does this section describe the sampling regime and sample sizes, including how individuals were assigned to treatments? What research materials were used: the organism, special chemicals, concentrations, instruments, etc.? Briefly explain the relevance of the methods to the questions you introduced above (e.g. "to determine if light limited algal growth, I measured...."). If applicable, include a description of the statistical methods you used in your analysis.
Careful writing of this section is important because the cornerstone of the scientific method requires that your results are reproducible, and for the results to be reproducible, you must provide the basis for the repetition of your experiments by others. Avoid lab manual or “cook book” type instructions. This section should be written in the past tense.
The “Results” section presents in words the major results of the study. Your data should b presented succinctly in the body of the report and presented in detail as tables or graphs. However, do not present the same data in both tabular and graphical form in the same paper. Strive for clarity, the results should be short and sweet.Do not attempt to discuss the interpretation of your data-this should be done in the “Discussion” section.
The results section should be written so that any college student could read the text to learn what you have done. For example, you might use a paragraph to explain what is seen on a particular graph;
“... When the enzyme as soaked in sulfuric acid, it produced no change in absorbance....” Do not make the common mistake of saying, “We performed the experiment, see figures 1-4.” That is too brief and does not convey to a novice what you have done. When stating your results in the body of the text, refer to your graphs and tables.
Tables and graphs alone do not make a Results section. In the text of this section describe your results (do not list actual numbers, but point out trends or important features). Refer to the figures and tables by number as well as any other relevant information. “See Figures” is not sufficient. Results are typically not discussed much more in this section unless brief discussion aids clarity. In referring to your results, avoid phrases like 'Table 1 shows the rate at which students fall asleep in class as a function of the time of day that class is taught." Rather, write: "Students fall asleep in class twice as frequently during evening than day classes (Table 1)." The results section should avoid discussion and speculation. This is the place to tell the reader what you found out, not what it means.
Each table and figure should be numbered sequentially for easy reference in the text of the Results and Discussion sections. Figures (e.g. graphs and diagrams) are numbered consecutively as Figure 1 to Figure X. Be sure to label both axes of all graphs (e.g. growth rate, height, number of species, water consumed, etc.), include units (e.g. meters, liters, seconds, etc.), and define all treatments. Labels such as “treatments 1,2,3, and 4” are not sufficient. Tables are numbered separately from the figures as Table 1 to Table X. Label columns, including units of measure, and define all treatments.
Your reader should NEVER have to go back to the text to interpret the table or figure-- thus you need to provide a legend for each figure and a caption for each table. A figure legend is freestanding text that goes below the figure. The first sentence of the legend (bold print in the example below) is typically a succinct statement that summarizes what the entire figure is about. The first sentence is then followed with particulars of the figure contents, as appropriate, including information about methods, how the data are expressed, or any abbreviations etc. An example of a legend...
Figure 1. Light Micrograph of a Human Karyotype. Fetal cells were obtained from Aimee Biophiliac in September 1998 by amniocentesis. The cells were cultured, metaphase chromosome spreads were prepared and the chromosomes stained and photographed as described in Materials and Methods. Individual chromosomes were cut out from the photograph and arranged in a karyotype. By virtue of the presence of two X-chromosomes, the karyotype indicates that the developing fetus is a female. Based on other information (data not presented), the fetus is expected to emerge March 19, 1999.
A table caption is freestanding text located above the table. It presents a succinct statement of the contents of the table. An example is...
Table 1. Uptake of Various Electrolytes by Rhinoceros Cells in Culture.
A caption must NOT include information about methods, how the data are expressed, or any abbreviations--- if needed, those are included as footnotes to the table, with each footnote keyed to a footnote reference in the table by sequential, lettered superscripts.
The discussion section is where you explain your results in detail, speculating on trends, possible causes, and conclusions. Try to present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the Results. And bear in mind, in a good Discussion, you discuss--you do not recapitulate-- the Results. Don't be shy; discuss the theoretical implications of your work, as well as any possible practical applications.
A good discussion section...
· states what conclusions can be drawn from the results (Present major findings first, then minor ones; Use your data to support these conclusions),
· compares your results with those of other workers and cites the references used for comparisons,
· puts your results in the context of the hypotheses and other material in your Introduction,
· indicates where your data fits in to the big picture,
· addresses problems that arose in your study and how could they be avoided in the future,
· will attempt to explain why results might be inconsistent with the predictions you made (what you thought would happen before you did your study, based on a specific hypothesis or other background information),
· explains any exceptional aspects of your data or unexpected results,
· examines your results for possible errors or bias,
· recommends further work that could augment the results of the study you have presented, and
· states your major conclusions as clearly as possible, using specific examples from your data!!
References (or References Cited)
The References section is a complete list of all references that you cited within your paper. The references are listed in alphabetical order by last name of the first author of each publication. Include only those references that you have actually read and that you specifically mention in your paper. If a laboratory handout was used it is only a beginning and must be cited.
When researching for information for the Introduction and Discussion sections or the paper, seek out original sources that are written by experts in the field (e.g. articles found in scientific journals such as Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, New England Journal of Medicine, etc.) or authoritative magazines (e.g. Scientific American) and books written by well respected scientists. Textbooks, although acceptable in this class as a last resort, are rarely cited in the scientific papers since information in textbooks is less reliable than from the original sources.
Citation formats are often discipline specific. Footnotes or endnotes are not normally used in scientific writing as they are in humanities and the social sciences. Because natural scientists
most often use the Name-Year System, we will use this system in this course. All citations occur in the text in parentheses, with the author(s) and date of publication. For example: Clinton (1999) found that naked foxes run on grass four times faster than those wearing pantyhose do. Alternatively: On grass surfaces, naked foxes run four times faster than those wearing pantyhose (Clinton 1999). It’s as easy as that! If there is more than one author of a source, simply use the first author's last name, followed by et al., Latin for “and others”. For example, (Clinton et al. 1999). The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper.
The format of the References section varies slightly from one scientific journal to another. Every scientific journal provides an “Instructions to Authors” that describes the format for the References section and all other requirements for papers they will accept. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources in for this course....
Citing Journal and Magazine Articles
Author(s). Publication year. Article title. Journal title volume: pages.
Smith, D.C. and J. Van Buskirk. 1995. Phenotypic design, plasticity and
ecological performance in two tadpole species. American Naturalist 145: 211-233.
Ahlberg, P.E. 1990. Glimpsing the hidden majority. Nature 344: 23.
Epel, D. and R. Steinhardt. 1974. Activation of sea urchin eggs by a calcium ionophore. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 71: 1915-1919.
Citing Journal and Magazine Articles with no Identifiable Author
Anonymous. Publication year. Article title. Journal title volume: pages
Anonymous. 1976. Epidemiology for primary health care. InternationalJournal
of Epidemiology 5: 224-225.
Author(s). Publication year. Book Title, edition if known. Publisher, Place
of publication, number of pages.
Purves, W.K., G.H. Orians and H.C. Heller. 1995. Life: The Science of
Biology, 4th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, 1195 pps.
Citing Book Chapters
Author(s). Publication year. Chapter title. In: Book title (Author(s)/editors, first name first) Place of publication, pages.
Jones, C.G. and J.S. Coleman. 1991. Plant stress and insect herbivory:
Toward an integrated perspective. In: Responses of Plants to Multiple Stresses (H.A. Mooney,
W.E. Winner & E.J. Pell, editors), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 249-280.
Citing Newspaper Articles
Author(s). Date (Year/Month/Day). Article title. Newspaper title Section: Page: Column.
Bishop, J. E. 1982 November 4. Do flies spread ills or is that claim merely a bugaboo? The Wall Street Journal 1: 1: 4.
Williams, M. 1997 January 5. Teaching the net. Seattle Times C: 1: 2.
Citing Newspaper Articles with no Identifiable Author
Anonymous. Date (Year/Month/Day). Article title. Newspaper title Section: page: column.
Anonymous. 1977 September 6. Puffin, a rare seabird, returns to where many were
killed. The New York Times 3:28:1.
Citing Sites on the Internet
The complete web address should be presented so that anyone else could easily visit the same website. Attempt to include the following elements (not all elements appear on all Web pages):
1. author(s) (last name, first initial)
2. date created or updated
3. title of the page
4. title of the complete web site (if different from the page)
5. URL (full web address)
6. the date accessed.
Author's last name, First initial. (date created or updated). Title of the page. Title of the complete site. [Online]. Available: http://full.web.address. [Date accessed].
Hammett, P. (1997). Evaluating web resources. Ruben Salazar Library, Sonoma State University. [Online]. Available: http://libweb.sonoma.edu/Resources/eval.html. [March 29, 1997].
Citing a Lecture
Lecturer’s last name, First initial. Lecture Location of Lecture, Date, Room number.
Greengrove, C. Lecture. UW-Tacoma, 8 January 1997, TLS490sc.
Citing a Video
Title of video (videocassette). editor or director. Producer’s name, producer. [Location of Production]: Organization responsible for production, Year.
New horizons in esthetic dentistry (videocassette). Wood, R. M., editor. Visualeyes Productions, producer. [Chicago] : Chicago Dental Society, 1989.
Citing a Thesis or Dissertation
Author. Publication year. Title [dissertation]. Publisher: Place of publication, number of pages. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI; DAI number.
Ritzmann RE. 1974. The snapping mechanism of Alpheid shrimp [dissertation]. University
of Virginia: Charlottesville (VA). 59pp. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor,
MI; AAD 74-23.
Author/Agency (if no author). Publication year. Title. Publisher, Place of publication, number of pages.
Mitchell, R.G., N.E. Johnson and K.H. Wright. 1974. Susceptibility of 10 spruce species and hybrids to the white pine weevil (= Sitka spruce weevil) in the Pacific Northwest. PNW-225. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 8 pp.
In this section you should thank anyone who has helped you in any aspect of this project. (e.g. "I thank William Gates for help with the computer program, Spike Lee for reading my pH meter, Al Gore for counting cockroaches, and Dewey, Cheetham, and Howe for valuable discussions of the ideas underlying these data).
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