Plan of Action
Figure 1. Schedule for completion of the literature review. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5.
ReferencesClark, Raymond L., "Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain," Proceedings of the 1997 Waste Management Conference (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997).
Kerr, R., "New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks," Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp. 913-914.
Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989).
Roush, W., "Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe?" Science, vol. 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762.
Taubes, G., "Blowup at Yucca Mountain," Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp. 1836-1839.
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A Proposal to Review How Geophysical Precursors
Can Help Predict Earthquakes
Justification of Proposed Review
- explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks;
- show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake; and
- discuss how each of these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions.
Plan of Action
Figure 1. Schedule for completion of literature review. The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996.
Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988).
Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993).
Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987).
Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964).
Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977).
Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993).
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An effective introduction discusses the meaningfulness of the study along while it presents the problem or issue. Because it advocates for the need for your investigation and gives a clear insight into your intentions, the introduction presents a background and context for your investigation. If your introduction gets your audience's attention, they will stay with you throughout your proposal.
Because it includes all of the sections listed below, your introduction may be several pages in length. Use your new knowledge of the research proposal and Crafting a Research Proposal: The Introduction to assist you in your organizing and writing of your own research proposal introduction.
As explained before, not all elements of the introduction are discussed separately. Many times several elements are discussed in one paragraph. This list just reminds you of all of the things that should be discussed at some point in the introduction. Although these aspects of an introduction are described separately, some parts may, in reality, be combined together when the actual proposal is written.
1. These elements should all be included in some form in the introduction. Each link has suggestions and tools to help you to plan for each.
As a part of the Introduction, effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be conducted?” The clear statement of the problem is the focal point of your research. It should state what you will be studying, whether you will do it through experimental or non-experimental investigation, and what the purpose of your findings will be. In it, you are looking for something wrong, something that needs close attention, or something where existing methods no longer seem to be working.
In your wording, be succinct and on target. Give a short summary of the research problem that you have identified. A research proposal may not be considered acceptable or credible if you fail to clearly identify the problem. Your biggest difficulty might be narrowing the topic since the topic is still relatively unfamiliar to you. Your Literature Review should be a helpful source.
While the problem statement itself is just one sentence, it is always accompanied in the larger Introduction by several paragraphs that help to elaborate and that may include other elements of the research proposal. You might present persuasive arguments as to why the problem is important enough to study or include the opinions of others (politicians, futurists, other professionals). Explain how the problem relates to business, social or political trends by presenting a bit of evidence from your Literature Review that demonstrates the scope and depth of the problem. Try to give dramatic and concrete illustrations of the problem. After writing the Introduction, however, make sure you can still easily identify the single sentence that is the problem statement.
Complete the following tutorial and Crafting the Research Proposal: The Introduction to help you to compose and record your own problem statement for your research proposal.
- Planning My Explanation of Purpose for the Study
- Planning My Definitions Section
Your proposal needs to be understandable to a general audience, not just individuals in your field of investigation. You should define important terms and concepts that are usually stated in the objectives, hypothesis, and research questions, especially considering subject-specific and technical terms. Words that differ in meaning in the context of your experiment from traditionally accepted meanings should also be defined. Especially be sure to explain any operational definitions, special definitions that you have created just for your study. Be sure to refer to authoritative sources in your definitions to add to your authority and credibility in your audience's eyes.
Crafting the Research Proposal: The Introduction and the information located in this website will help you to write this section of your proposal.
As you begin to write your introduction the clearest way to arrange your definitions is to list terms in alphabetical order, with definitions stated in complete sentences. The can be observed in the following example of a definitions section from a proposal entitled “On the Home Front: Gender Disruption and the Great War.”
Definition of Terms
“The Great War”: World War I (WWI), general armed conflict between the Allies and the Central Powers, 1914-1918.
“Modernism”: a post-Victorian artistic and literary movement marked by disillusionment with industrialism and imperialism, by the rise of capitalism and commercialism, and by the decline of religious certainty in an age of anxiety.
“The New Woman”: a term coined around the turn of the century to denote the emergenceof women into the public sphere, a term closely associated with the suffrage movement, and connoting profound social transformations of the time.
NOTE: Both terms with precise historical meanings (“The Great War”) and potentiallyambiguous ones (“Modernism” and “The New Woman”) are defined. Theseare not the only possible definitions, but are the ones chosen by the author to fit herown needs in the thesis.
The following are excellent sources for defining terms:
- Planning My Explanation of Problem Significance
- Incorporating My Literature Review
Your review of literature is already completed and has been through the process of revision and editing, so you have done the bulk of the work associated with this section of the introduction. It just needs to be added to the rest of this part of your proposal. Sounds easy, right? Just a simple Copy-Paste?
Well, it is easy, but it does require a little more than mouse clicks to make the literature review "fit in" with the rest of your proposal.
You have three main things to consider:
- Because you wrote the literature review before you learned about research design and methodology, you may now have new terms and concepts to associate with the summaries and explanations in your document. Revise your literature review to be sure that there is alignment in your terminology and analyses.
- Because you wrote the literature review some time ago, you need to revise it to have the same voice, tone, and styleas the rest of your proposal. This is something that you may want to wait to do until you have finished the methodology section of your proposal, but it is good to begin to at least consider it now. Your proposal should sound like it was written by the same person, something is surprisingly difficult to do when a document is created section-by-section.
- Because your review of literature has its own bibliography, those references must be incorporated into the reference list for the rest of your proposal. Both reference lists need to be combined into one list that is alphabetized, formatted appropriately, and eliminates duplications in entries.
- Planning My Research Questions or Hypothesis
Although you do not have to plan anything for this step, your planning guide directs you to complete a Reflection Journal entry.
2. The way that introductions are crafted is as individualized as the proposal that follows. You already saw actual introductions when you reviewed Sample Research Proposals and you may have recorded some of ideas about them in your Reflective Journal. Here are some "How To" procedures that you've seen before that explain some ideas for the construction and composition of the introduction section of the research proposal.
- Begin with something interesting, e.g., a quote or story, to capture the reader's interest.
- Introduce your question or curiosity. What is it that you want to know or understand? How did you get interested in the topic? If your question has evolved since you have begun, describe the process.
- Tell why there's a need for the study. Cite relevant literature that calls for the need for the research in this area, or demonstrates the lack of attention to the topic. In your own words, describe how you think this study will be useful.
- Describe the intended audience for your research (e.g., the public, family therapists).
- Describe your research product. What form will the report take (e.g., scholarly manuscript, magazine article for the public, script for a documentary video)?
- Conclude the introduction with an overview of your proposal.
Introduction (2 pages)
1. What is the topic of your research?
2. What area of sociology is concerned with questions related to your research interest?
3. Formulate your research question(s) or the problem you want to address as clearly as possible. What is your research goal? Is it descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, or an evaluation?
4. Explain how you came to this question/problem based on your previous interests (research you might have been involved in, other courses you have taken, your work experience, discussions, etc.).
5. Explain the assumptions you are making in researching your question.
Explain the concepts you are using; what indicators/variables will you need to measure these?
What is your hypothesis and your independent/ dependent variables? Or what are you trying to explain?
6. Tentative thesis (argument) (your best answer to the research question based on your work to date)
7. Significance of this research question: Explain why this research is worth pursuing. Why is answering this research question important?
- this section sets the context for your proposed project and must capture the reader's interest
- explain the background of your study starting from a broad picture narrowing in on your research question
- review what is known about your research topic as far as it is relevant to your thesis
- cite relevant references
- the introduction should be at a level that makes it easy to understand for readers with a general science background, for example your classmates
Once you have drafted your proposal introduction, use the revision checklist to help you to self-revise your document. When you have made your own revisions, post your proposal introduction to the course Wiki so that others can comment and respond to your introduction using the same revision guide.
When you have completed soliciting feedback and have made your revisions, use the editing checklist to help you to polish your document.
Back to Planning My Proposal