Unformatted text preview: MS-10 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2015 PROVIDED BY WWW.MYIGNOU.IN Course Code: MS-10 Course Title: Organisational Design, Development and Change Assignment Code: MS-10/TMA/SEM-I/2015 Coverage: All Blocks .IN Q1. What are the different approaches to organisation? Briefly explain the 7s model with the help of examples. Ans: YI GN OU The basic elements of organisations have remained the same over the years. Organisations have purposes (be they explicit or implicit), attract people, acquire and use resources to achieve the objectives, use some form of structure to divide (division of labour) and coordinate activities, and rely on certain positions/people to lead or manage others. While the elements of organizations are the same as ever before, the purposes o\f organisation, structures, ways of doing things, methods of coordination and control have always varied widely over the years and even at the same time amongst different organisations. For example, public sector organisation in India with there multiple objectives in early years were not roused by the profit motive but are now required to make surpluses. At a given point in the time of history. Ford Motors relied more on centralization and General Motors on decentralization. The crucial aspect that accounts for the differences is how an organisation adapts itself to the environment. Organisation being part of the society affects and is affected by the changes in society. The changes could be social, economic, technical, legal or political; they could be in input (labour, capital, materials etc.) or output markets. M It is essential to develop a perspective understanding about organisations because human behaviour and organisational behaviour are influenced by the people in organisations and the specific characteristics in the basic elements in the organisations and the way they adapt themselves to the environment. There is considerable body of knowledge and literature, called organisation theories, developed over the years reflecting what goes on in organisations. Organisation theories are sets of propositions which seek to explain or predict how individuals and groups behave indifferent organisational structures and circumstances. Basically we have the three types of approaches to organisation 1. Classical 1 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in 2. neo-classical 3. modern approach Now we will describe Classical View point: .IN these concepts have come to be popularly known as classical concepts or classical theories of organisation. The structure of an organisation received emphasis under this school of thought. According to the classical view, “An organisation is the structure of the relationships, power, objectives, roles, activities, communications and other factors that exist when persons work together. Bureaucracy GN OU The streams of concepts in the “classical” mould are based on the same assumptions, but are developed rather independently. Bureaucracy as a concept, first developed by Max Weber, presents a descriptive, detached, scholarly point of view. Administrative theories not only described macro aspects of organisations but also focused on principles and practice for better performance. Scientific management thought focused mainly in micro aspects like individual worker, foreman, work process, etc. The classical theorists on the whole, with scientific management stream being a minor exception, viewed organisations as mechanistic structures. Let us consider the three streams of classical theories briefly : i.e Bureaucracy, Administrative theory and Scientific Management. M YI Bureaucracy is the dominant feature of ancient civilizations as well as modern organisations in contemporary world. Max Weber describes an “ideal type” approach to outline the characterstics of a fully developed bureaucratic form of organisation. The features that the described as being characterstic of a bureaucracy are common to all social institutions, be they political, religious, industry, business, military, educational or government organisations. Size and complexity produce bureaucracy. As such, the rigid structures, fixed jurisdictions, impersonal rules and mundane routine, concomitant with bureaucracies often result in delays, produce inertia, encourage buck-passing, lead to wastage of resources and cause frustration. As such, in general parlance the word ‘bureaucracy’ has come to have a negative connotation and many tended to wish it away. But the features that characterize bureaucracy have become inevitable and ubiquitous with the growing size and complexity in organisations. There is need, therefore, to understand and improve bureaucracies than indulge in dysfunctional debates over their relevance. Administrative Theory Administrative theory is another stream of thought in the classical mould. 2 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Among the several proponents of the Administrative theory, the earliest and significant contribution came from Henri F Fayol, a French industrialist, in 1916. The 14 principles that capture the essence of the administrative theory could be summarized as follows: Division of work. Division of work or specialization gives higher productivity because one can work at activities in which one is comparatively highly skilled. Authority and responsibility. Authority is the right to give orders. An organisational member has responsibility to accomplish the organisational objectives of his position. Appropriate sanctions are required to encourage good and to discourage poor performance. .IN Discipline. There must be respect for and obedience to the rules and objectives of the organisation. OU Unity of command. To reduce confusion and conflicts each member should receive orders from and be responsible to only one superior. Unity of direction. An organistion is effective when members work together toward the same objectives. GN Subordination of individual interest to general interest. The interests of one employee or group of employees should not prevail over that of the organisation. Remuneration of personnel. Pay should be fair and should reward good performance, decentralization. good balance should be found between centralisation and YI Centralisation. A decentralization. Scalar chain. There is scalar chain or hierarchy dictated by the principle of unity of command linking all members of the organisation from the top to the bottom. M Order. There is a place for everything and everyone which ought to be so occupied. Equity. Justice, largely based on predetermined conventions, should prevail in the organisation. Stability of tenure of personnel. Time is required for an employee to get used to new work and succeed in doing it well. Initiative. The freedom to think out and execute plans at all levels. Espirit de corps. “Union is strength”. Scientific Management 3 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in The third stream of classic school of thought is the scientific management. Whereas bureaucracy and administrative theory focused on macro aspects of the structure and processes of human organisations, scientific management concerned itself with micro aspects such as physical activities of work through time-and-motion study and examination of men-machine relationships. Unlike in the other two, the scientific management and based its inductive reasoning on detailed study and empirical evidence. In juxtaposition the principles of bureaucracy and administrative theory were formed by synthesising experience and observation with abstract reasoning. Neoclassical Viewpoint OU .IN The neoclassical theory, also referred to as the human relations school of thought reflects a modification to and improvement over the classical theories. While classical theories focused more on structure and physical aspects of work the neoclassical theory recognizes the primary of psychological and social aspects of the worker as an individual and his relations within and among groups and the organisation. Though neoclassical philosophy could be traced to ancient times, it gained currency only after the world War I, particulary in the wake of the “Hawthrone experiments” at Western Electric Company by Elton Mayo during 1924 to 1932. GN The neoclassical viewpoint thus gave birth to human relations movement and provided the thrust toward democratisation of organisational power structures and participative management. The emerging changes in social, economic, political and technical environment of organisations also seems to have provided the rationale for such shift in emphasis. YI The neoclassical viewpoint does not replace classical concepts. The need for order, rationality, structure, etc. have been modified to highlight the importance of relaxing the rigid and impersonal structures and consider each person as an individual with feelings and social influences that effect performance on the job. M Modern (Systems) Viewpoint Modern theories of organisation and management have been developed largely since the 1930s. The perspective here is to provide a systems viewpoint. Among the several persons who contributed to the modern theory, it was perhaps Chester I. Bernard, who in 1983, provided a comprehensive explanation of the modern view of management and organisation. He considered the individual, organisation, suppliers and consumers as part of the environment. Ten years later, Weiner;s pioneering work on cybernetics developed concepts of systems control by information feedback. He described an adaptive system (including an orgainsation) as mainly dependent upon measurement and correction through feedback. An organisation is viewed as a system consisting of five parts: inputs, process, output, feedback and environment as shown in Figure . 4 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Input Process Outputs The GST approach suggests the following nine levels of systems complexity: .IN 1. The most basic level is the static structure. It could be termed the level of frameworks. An example would be the anatomy of the universe. 2. The second level is the simple dynamic system. It incorporates necessary Predetermined motions. This could be termed the level of clockworks. OU 3. The next level is a cybernetic system characterized by automatic feedback Control mechanisms. This could be thought of as the level of clockworks. 4. The fourth level is called the “open-systems” level. It is a self-maintaining Structure and is the level where life begins to differentiate from nonlife. This is the level of the cell. GN 5. The fifth level can be termed the “genetic-societal” level. It is typified by the plant and occupies the empirical world of the botanist. 6. The next is the animal level, which is characterized by increased mobility, Teleological behaviour, and self-awareness. YI 7. The seventh level is the human level. The major difference between the human level and the animal level is the human’s possession of self-consciousness. M 8. The next level is that of social organisations. The important unit in a social organisation is not the human per se but rather the organisatonal role that the person assumes. 9. The ninth and last level is reserved for transcendental systems. This allows for ultimates, absolute and the inescapable unknowables. Each level is more complex than the one that precedes it. However, no stage is as yet fully developed and knowledge about different levels is for varying degrees. Beyond the second level none of the theories are comprehensive or fully meaningful. Over the last here decades further developments in research into organisations may have added to the existing knowledge, but human organisations continue to be extremely complex. 5 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in The systems approach points to the interdependent nature of everything that forms part of or concerns an organisation. A system is composed of elements which are related to and dependent upon one another and which, when in interaction, from a unitary whole. Systems framework covers both general and specialized systems and closed and open analysis. A general systems approach to the management processes deals with formal organisation and concepts relating to different disciplines such as technical, social, psychological and philosophical. Specific management systems deal with aspects relating to organisation structure, job design, specific functions of management, etc. .IN A closed system operates in a closed loop, devoid of external inputs. An open system, in contrast, is a dynamic input-output system “in continual interaction with environment to achieve a steady state of dynamic equilibrium while still retaining the capacity for work or energy transformation”. OU While the classical theorists recognised only a closed system viewpoint, the modern theorists believe in organisations as open systems. The work of D.Katz and R L Kahn provided the intellectual basis to merge classical, neoclassical and modern viewpoints. Here below we are describing the different approaches to organisation in relevence of 7s model. GN The 7-S-Model is better known as McKinsey 7-S. This is because the two persons who developed this model, Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, have been consultants at McKinsey & Co at that time. Thy published their 7-S-Model in their article “Structure Is Not Organization” (1980) and in their books “The Art of Japanese Management” (1981) and “In Search of Excellence” (1982). YI The model starts on the premise that an organization is not just Structure, but consists of seven elements: M Those seven elements are distinguished in so called hard S’s and soft S’s. The hard elements (green circles) are feasible and easy to identify. They can be found in strategy statements, corporate plans, organizational charts and other documentations. The four soft S’s however, are hardly feasible. They are difficult to describe since capabilities, values and elements of corporate culture are continuously developing and changing. They are highly determined by the people at work in the organization. Therefore it is much more difficult to plan or to influence the characteristics of the soft elements. Although the soft factors are below the surface, they can have a great impact of the hard Structures, Strategies and Systems of the organization. Description 6 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in The Hard S’s Strategy Actions a company plans in response to or anticipation of changes in its external environment. Structure Basis for specialization and co-ordination influenced primarily by strategy and by organization size and diversity. Systems Formal and informal procedures that support the strategy and structure. (Systems are more powerful than they are given credit) .IN The Soft S’s Style / Culture The culture of the organization, consisting of two components: • Organizational Culture: the dominant values and beliefs, and norms, which develop over time and become relatively enduring features of organizational life. OU • Management Style: more a matter of what managers do than what they say; How do a company’s managers spend their time? What are they focusing attention on? Symbolism – the creation and maintenance (or sometimes deconstruction) of meaning is a fundamental responsibility of managers. GN Staff The people/human resource management – processes used to develop managers, socialization processes, ways of shaping basic values of management cadre, ways of introducing young recruits to the company, ways of helping to manage the careers of employees YI Skills The distinctive competences – what the company does best, ways of expanding or shifting competences M Shared Values / Superordinate Goals Guiding concepts, fundamental ideas around which a business is built – must be simple, usually stated at abstract level, have great meaning inside the organization even though outsiders may not see or understand them. Effective organizations achieve a fit between these seven elements. This criterion is the origin of the other name of the model: Diagnostic Model for Organizational Effectiveness. If one element changes then this will affect all the others. For example, a change in HRsystems like internal career plans and management training will have an impact on organizational culture (management style) and thus will affect structures, processes, and finally characteristic competences of the organization. In change processes, many organizations focus their efforts on the hard S’s, Strategy, Structure and Systems. They care less for the soft S’s, Skills, Staff, Style and Shared Values. 7 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Peters and Waterman in “In Search of Excellence” commented however, that most successful companies work hard at these soft S’s. The soft factors can make or break a successful change process, since new structures and strategies are difficult to build upon inappropriate cultures and values. These problems often come up in the dissatisfying results of spectacular mega-mergers. The lack of success and synergies in such mergers is often based in a clash of completely different cultures, values, and styles, which make it difficult to establish effective common systems and structures. .IN The 7-S Model is a valuable tool to initiate change processes and to give them direction. A helpful application is to determine the current state of each element and to compare this with the ideal state. Based in this it is possible to develop action plans to achieve the intended state. OU Q2. Discuss the universal perspectives of Organisational Design. Identify the restructuring strategy being adopted by an organisation you are familiar with and make a brief analysis of the contingent factors that have influenced the strategy of the said organisation. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to. Ans: GN Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve. YI Universal Perspectives The Bureaucratic Model M Max Weber, a German sociologist, conceptualized the idea of bureaucracy. A bureaucracy is a form of organizational structure in which people can be held fully accountable for their actions because they are required to act in accordance with well-specified and agreed-upon rules and standard operating procedures. Basic Elements of the Bureaucratic Structure are: formal rules and behavior bounded by rules uniformity of operations continuity despite changes in personnel functional division of labor based on functional specialization rational allocation of tasks impersonal orientation 8 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in membership constitutes a career promotion based on technical competence limited discretion of officers specific sphere of competence legally based tenure employment based on merit-no ascribed status qualifications tested proscribed authority-legally defined .IN The Behavioural Model GN OU This model has evolved from the Human Relations School of management thought. In this model the performance of an organization is believed to depend on human beings, their behaviour, characteristics and their mutual relationships emerging from work patterns and organizational settings. The important factors which play significant roles are needs, motivations, attitudes, values, leadership, group behaviour, perceptions, communications, responsibility and authority relationship, etc. In other words, the behavioural models of organization design reflect the social and psychological implications of organizational life. The most popular behavioural models of organization design— the socio-technical systems theory and Likert’s System 4 Organization. Contingency Approach M YI The contingency approach to organizational design tailors organizational structure to the sources of uncertainty facing an organization. The structure is designed to respond to various contingencies- things that might happen and therefore must be planned. According to Contingency Theory, the structure of an organization depends on the circumstances at any given time. The key contingency variables addressed in the literature include: strategy ability to adapt to the environment technology and size 9 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in The organisation I are familiar with is Toyata and make a brief analysis of the contingent factors that have influenced the strategy Continuing Their coverage of the Toyota Recommendations from the Quality Advisory Panel, today we highlight the first recommendation, and it’s one that all corporations struggle with at some point: The findings from the Toyota Quality Advisory Board: M YI GN OU .IN a) Toyota North American Quality Advisory Panel Conclusions: The high-level summary of the findings from the quality advisory panel. b) Balance Between Local and Global Management Control: How can Toyota best balance decision making between Toyota Motor Corporation in Japan and its regional operations in the North America and the world? c) Responses to Problems Raised by Internal and External Sources: The panel found that problems raised by sources external to Toyota were not treated as seriously as those found within Toyota. The panel claims that this violates the tenets of the Toyota Production System. d) Management Responsibility for Quality and Safety: Because Toyota treated Safety as a subset of Quality, the panel believes that this has led to the blurring of the lines and makes the question “Who is Responsible?” more difficult to answer; consequently, this has led to the old adage of “if everyone is responsible, then nobody is accountable”. e) The Challenges of Integrating Electronics and Software: Has the integration of software led to safety problems? f) Management of Supplier Product Quality: As Toyota becomes more and more decentralized, has Toyota maintained the rigorous supplier quality requirements it once had? According to the Quality Advisory Panel, Toyota has remained too much on the side of an organizational structure that is too globally centralized. In the Panel’s words: a) In the Panel’s view, Toyota has erred too much on the side of global centralization and needs to shift the balance somewhat toward greater local authority and control. b) Toyota has traditionally structured its global operations to maximize control by TMC in Japan. Decision-making structures involving everything from 10 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in recalls, communications, marketing, and vehicle design and development have historically been centrally managed and tightly controlled by TMC. c) To accomplish this, Toyota has structured its global operations around functional “silos,” each of which reports separately to TMC. In North America, Toyota does not have one chief executive in charge of all its divisions (e.g., sales and marketing, general corporate, engineering, and manufacturing). Instead, there are individual heads of each division, each of which reports directly to TMC in Japan. .IN Apparently, strategy and structure go hand-in-hand and Toyota’s lack of a strategy led to it’s organizational structure. The outcome has, in large part, led to the public relations nightmare that Toyota has had to deal with. OU In its review, the Panel has determined that this structure contributed to several of Toyota’s quality and safety issues in North America. Specifically, Toyota’s tightlycontrolled global structure: a) hindered information sharing and contributed to miscommunication; b) and delayed response time to quality and safety issues, fueling criticism that Toyota was being unresponsive to regulators and customers. GN The Quality Advisory Panel provides specific recommendations for Toyota on how it can change its organizational structure to better allow quicker decision making and faster flow of information: M YI a) Work to further break down the regional “silo” structure in North America and consider appointing one chief executive for North American operations with responsibility for all regional functional organizations. b) Identify additional critical cross-silo processes and organize decision-making teams around them. Toyota’s inclusion of senior executives from North America in decisions regarding product recalls in North America appears to be a model for this. However, Toyota must be ever mindful that when responding to critical and emergent safety issues, decision making by committee can be inefficient and time-consuming. Toyota should consider what other decision-making models might be employed in emergency situations. c) Strengthen communication among global regions, especially regarding reports of vehicle safety issues in vehicles that may share parts across regions. It is not enough to improve the channels of communication between 11 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in .IN Toyota’s regional operations and TMC. Toyota should also find ways to facilitate communication across regions, especially regarding critical safety issues. As part of that effort, Toyota should consider appointing a director from one of its key regional markets such as North America. d) Develop clearer lines of communication, authority, and decision making between North America and TMC. This is especially important as it relates to gathering and responding to direct feedback from customers, lawmakers, regulators, and other stakeholders. This will allow North America and other regions to benefit from the additional autonomy and authority they have been granted. e) Continue to increase North American involvement in the product development and design process for vehicles in North American markets. OU Q3. Explain the contemporary approaches to job design citing suitable examples. Ans: M YI GN The scientific approach is not always effective, organisations began searching for alternative job designs. One such individual contemporary job design is job enrichment. As shown in Figure 5.1, five positive personal and work outcomes - high motivation, quality work performance, satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover - result when people are 12 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in allowed to function in an environment where work enables the individual to obtain a sense of: meaningfulness responsibility empowerment satisfaction in knowing the results YI Examples GN OU .IN Whereas the individual contemporary and the scientific approaches design jobs for individuals, the team approach designs jobs for teams of individuals. These designs generally show a concern for the social needs of individuals as well as the constraints of technology. Here teams of workers often rotate jobs and many follow the product they are working on to the last step in the process. In the team contemporary design, each worker learns to handle several duties - many requiring different skills. Thus, they can satisfy their needs for achievement and task accomplishment, as well as some needs for social interaction. When faced with decisions, teams that work well together try to involve all members in decisionmaking [teamwork]. If their decisions and behaviours result in greater output, all team members share the benefits. Typically, teams may start out making only a few decisions.Yet, after time, training and familiarity, they begin to make more decisions.Essentially, the team members pass through stages of greater empowerment- allowing people the freedom and authority to do their jobs well4.In each new stage, they make more decisions, resulting in self-managed teams. M Examples of such programs include flextime, workplace wellness, and family support. Flexible work schedules can allow an employee to work whenever they can as long as a certain amount of hours are worked each week and some employers allow their employees to work from home. Sometimes employers utilize flextime schedules that allow employees to arrive to work when they choose within specified limits. A wellness program can involve having an exercise facility, offering counseling, or even having programs set up to help employees lose weight or stop smoking cigarettes.Family support programs involve help with parenting, childcare, and some programs allow employees to leave for family purposes. One study found that men often identify themselves with their career and work roles while women often identified themselves with the roles of mother, wife, friend, and daughter.The Sloan Foundation found that even though women enjoy working 13 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in as much as men, women prefer to work nights and weekends if time needs to be made up instead of cutting their hours. A study conducted by the Alliance for WorkLife Progress surveyed employees to find out the type of workplace flexibility employees say they would like to use in the following year. Burrus et. al. found that 71 percent of people want an occasional opportunity to adjust their schedule, 57 percent want to work from a location other than their office, 73 percent want to make their work-life flexibility arrangement official, and 12 percent want to work less hours. .IN Q4. Define organisational diagnosis. Discus different methods of organizational analysis and cite how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to. OU Ans: In the field"Corporate diagnosis is a process that involves the three steps of publicly entering a human system, collecting valid data about experiences, and feeding back to the system toward promoting corporate performance". GN The effective diagnosis of organizational culture, and structural and operational strengths and weaknesses are fundamental to any successful organizational development intervention. As Beckhard said in the preface to his seminal work. M YI Since the beginnings of organizational development as a profession, diagnosis has moved from the purely behavioral towards a strategic and holistic business diagnostic approach. Moving away from looking at human interventions in isolation, to exploring the interactions of people in the context in which they operate. equally as organizations are increasingly collaborative in nature, the traditional silo approach to diagnostics is becoming increasingly rare. Organizational development and in particular the diagnostic phase of activities is spreading from the occupational psychologists towards main stream business. This is important for OD practitioners as the role is increasingly holistic. Different methods of organizational analysis 14 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Strategic/organizational analysis methods depend on the particular organization. A list of data sources is available for determining training and HRD needs. The list includes the following: known as manpower .IN a) human resource inventories (formerly inventories), b) skills inventories, c) organizational climate measures, d) and efficiency indexes. GN OU Some of these sources, such as efficiency indexes are continuously monitored by many organizations as part of the normal control procedures and the data are readily available. Other existing organizational measures can be used as a basis for performance improvement and training efforts also. Such sources include employee surveys and interviews. For example, the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan markets two instruments – Survey of Organizations and Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire – that are supported by substantial reliability and validity data. The Organization I am familiar with is WALMART for organizational diagnosis M YI “Wal-Mart is losing business to rivals of different shapes and sizes. Customer traffic at U.S. stores has declined for five straight quarters. Meanwhile, sales have surged at discounters like Dollar Tree and Family Dollar Stores. A recent study by Wells Fargo [WFC] showed that those chains often charge less than Wal-Mart, though they carry a much smaller selection of items.” So Wal-Mart is caught in the middle. If you want something quick, go to a convenience store. If you want something cheap, go to Amazon. Wal-Mart? We don’t need you any more. “While the likes of Wal-Mart and OfficeMax have struggled to increase revenues recently, Amazon has thrived, with sales rising 40% in 2010 to $34 billion. For the first time, annual sales of media products like books and DVDs accounted for less than half of total revenue.” 15 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Over ten years, Wal-Mart’s share price has stagnated, while Amazon’s has increased around ten times. So what is Wal-Mart doing about it? .IN Chief Executive Mike Duke said yesterday that “problems at Wal-Mart Stores Inc. have been more severe than management expected and will take time to fix…. Some of the pricing and merchandising issues in Wal-Mart U.S. ran deeper than we initially expected, and they require a response that will take time to see results.” OU But will time show results? It seems more likely that if Mr Duke spends his time on pricing and merchandising issues, it won’t be long before Wal-Mart follows other retailers like Borders and Circuit City into bankruptcy, fresh victims of the Amazonian jungle. Traditional Management Can’t Save Wal-Mart How? GN There is no sign that Mr Duke realizes that his firm is suffering from a fatal disease: traditional management. Working over “pricing and merchandising issues” isn’t going to save Wal-Mart. Instead Wal-Mart has reinvent itself. WalMart has to start delighting its customers. YI Wal-Mart has some strengths. It has a lot of money and a lot of assets. M And it’s a plus that Wal-Mart is undertaking a thorough reform of its energy and environmental policies and seems intent on becoming a model green corporation. That’s welcome news, but it’s not a business strategy that will save the firm. And Wal-Mart also has significant handicaps. Wal-Mart’s assets are a mixed blessing. In the Amazonian jungle, bytes beat bricks. Managing a whole lot of real estate assets can distract management from its real challenge—creating a business that has a future. Besides, the stores are big and clunky and located in places that people used to be willing 16 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in to drive to, just to buy cheap stuff. Now that its stuff is no longer the cheapest, distance becomes an issue. Wal-Mart also has an unfortunate tradition of extraordinarily asocial practices in labor relations. As a result, it may not have the kind of skilled and motivated staff that can easily generate the continuous innovation that is needed to turn Wal-Mart into a genuine 21st Century firm. .IN Moreover Wal-Mart has no tradition of delighting its customers. It’s the quintessential 20th Century firm with an inside-out perspective: “You buy what we sell, because it’s cheaper.” Now that what Wal-Mart sells is no longer cheaper, that business model is broken. OU And Wal-Mart cannot simply emulate Amazon. Amazon is already so far ahead as an online firm, Wal-Mart will never be able to catch up. Instead Wal-Mart has to reinvent its business model from scratch. Mr Duke isn’t going to save Wal-Mart just by working on pricing and merchandising. He needs to re-think his whole business. GN How could Wal-Mart reinvent itself? It must begin by asking who its customers are and what would delight them? Wal-Mart has to start understanding them in depth, figuring out what might delight them and go on doing it, time after time. M YI Personally, I don’t know Wal-Mart customers well, but we could take the analogous case of my relationship with a local supermarket to start to see some of the directions that reinventing a supermarket might take. Offer what the customers really want: It’s only in the last few years that my local supermarket offered wine. Now it offers a wide selection of wines that I like at reasonable prices. This makes me want to go the supermarket, something I used to hate doing. Eliminate checkout queues: I used to hate waiting in line at the supermarket, as the checkout clerk moved at a snail’s pace to scan items. Now I can scan my own items at a self-checkout counter. I like doing the scanning 17 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in and checking the prices, rather than waiting in a queue. I am in and out in a flash. Deliver: I now have heavy groceries delivered in bulk from the local supermarket to my kitchen. I used to hate carrying all that stuff. Now I don’t need to. The groceries are about the same price as Amazon groceries online, but the local supermarket guarantees the time when they will be delivered, something Amazon is unable so far to do. So for now at least, I have the groceries delivered by the local supermarket, not Amazon. OU .IN Treat its own staff right: One thing I still don’t like about the local supermarket is the attitude of the staff, who seem embittered by the way they are treated there. If they were treated better, their attitude would be better, and they might be more inclined to find other ways that would delight me. GN I am obviously not a typical Wal-Mart customer and am not likely to be, at least in Wal-Mart’s current incarnation. But my experience with the local supermarket begins to show how one might turn a relatively unpleasant relationship with a supermarket into something rather more promising. YI For Wal-Mart to pursue this kind of a strategy, it would require a shift from an inside-out perspective of making money for its shareholders to one of pursuing customer capitalism and adopting an outside-in perspective that consistently seeks ways to delight its customers. M Mr Duke and his team would need to decide who its customers are, figure out what are the hopes and dreams and fears and irritations and fears, find ways to alleviate those fears and irritations and fulfill those hopes and dreams. Q4) Write an essay on the process of change and enumerate how it is carried out in an organization. Ans: Organizational Change Process Selecting and implementing significant change is one of the most challenging undertakings that faces an organization. If the change involves the entire 18 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in organization and also requires new paradigms that will replace established ways of doing business the challenge is daunting. Research shows that the success rate for implementing major organizational change is quite low, for several reasons. First, asking organizations to change the way they conduct their business is similar to asking individuals to change their lifestyle. It can be done but only with the greatest determination, discipline, persistence, commitment and a clear plan for implementing the change. .IN Second, resistance to change is a natural human phenomenon. All people resist change, some more than others. Managing that resistance is an essential part of the process. GN OU Third, change creates uncertainty. Organizations generally achieve fairly predictable results with their existing business model. Their outcomes may not be the desired results, but they are predictable. Change is unpredictable. The results may be far better – but they may also be far worse. And success often looks and feels like failure until the change is very nearly completed. Staying the course of implementing a change – which is essential for its success – meets with continuing human and organizational resistance and pressure to pull the plug before the process is completed. YI Managing the process of change is essential to successful implementation. Success will be based on two major factors: a defined process to guide the change and an assigned Change Leadership Team. M The Change Leadership Team is not necessarily a full-time, dedicated team. But it must be a team that is given the charter, the responsibility, the authority and the accountability for the full implementation of the required changes. If the change is organization-wide, paradigm-shifting or systemic, this may well be the senior management team of the organization. If the change is for a major subset of the organization, then a separate cross-functional team may be designated. In either event, the team must be clearly defined and allocated sufficient capacity – time, resources, and authority - to do its work. Methods of Changing 19 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in One of the challenges in modifying systems is knowing the key levers and how to use them to create and sustain change. The three levers for creating organizational change are: Lever One – The Senior Management Team .IN The single best lever is the senior management team…if they are truly aligned. When aligned, they speak with one voice and reinforce each other throughout the organization. If they are not aligned but give verbal agreement to change while proceeding with their own agendas the organization loses its best leverage point. Actually, if the senior management team is not fully aligned and doing real work in designing the change together, they may become the biggest point of resistance. OU Lever Two – A Common Organizational Model GN The second lever is having an agreed upon mental model of the organization. This common picture of how to examine the organization and approach change is essential to success. Otherwise, the senior team will argue about what to change and where and why. They will each have their own root cause analysis based on their own personal experience. And each story will have its validity. Full alignment can only be achieved if everyone understands and agrees to a common model. YI Lever Three – A Structured Change Methodology M The third lever is a structured methodology to analyze the organization, design the change, implement it, and monitor progress until it becomes the natural way of conducting business. Without this methodology change will be sporadic, not sustained and employees will view the change effort as the “initiative of the week,” waiting until it goes away. A structured methodology based on a common model that is fully and completely implemented and supported by the senior management team provides the leverage for sustainable change. The Change Management Methodology Step One - Confirming the Compelling Need to Change 20 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in It is not uncommon for the process to begin with significant discussion about whether broad-based systemic change is needed, or whether smaller incremental improvements will do the job. This often requires some external data (market share, competitive information, etc.) as well as objective internal data (how long does it take to complete projects vs. plan; are costs per unit increasing or decreasing; is our organization getting better at what it does; is competitive positioning weakening, etc.). Step Two - Identifying the Boundary Conditions OU .IN Boundary conditions define the limits (or playground) within which change might be considered. When senior teams begin their discussion some large topics usually emerge very quickly. Issues such as mergers, acquisitions, international or global initiatives, large capital investments, strategic alliance partners, equity situations, private vs. public ownership, etc. may be debated. Step Three - Creating the Vision of the Desired End State YI GN A group of people aligned around a common vision are a very powerful force. John Kennedy’s vision of "put a man on the moon by the end of the decade" spurred NASA to unprecedented performance. Martin Luther King’s vision in his "I have a dream" speech energized the civil rights movement. Jack Welch’s vision for GE in which he said that "We will be number one or number two in every category or we won’t be in it" drove incredible energy and focus through GE. The vision of Mercedes Benz to "always make the best engineered car in the world" has been the hallmark of its focus for decades. M Step Four - Developing the Core Work Processes The mention of work processes typically creates mixed reactions. Everyone agrees that some degree of process is required. Without defined processes a company would not be able to produce a consistent payroll. It would not be able to hire people. It would not have any consistent methodologies for its work. It could never assure any consistency or reliability. Step Five - Defining Key Roles and Responsibilities 21 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in Every company has a relatively small number of key roles that are central to its business. There are usually a number of people who perform these roles, and they are the linking pins for one or several core processes. Some examples of such key roles are: project director, lead engineer, national account manager, customer service representative, senior consultant, systems engineer, account executive, etc. YI GN OU .IN The next step is to identify the few key roles in the organization that are central to how the company’s work gets done and then for the senior team collectively to define them. M Step Six - Modifying the Organizational Structure Most changes begin with a modification of the organizational structure. Unfortunately, most changes end there as well – which is precisely why most large scale change is unsuccessful. Step six represents the point where examining and possibly modifying the organizational structure is both appropriate and necessary. Step Seven - Establishing the Key Performance Measures 22 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in .IN Every organization measures its performance. Unfortunately, most organizational measures have two fundamental flaws. First, there is a disproportional emphasis on financial measures. Financial measures are not direct performance measures. They are the consequences of company performance achieved or not achieved. By themselves, they indicate very little. Second, most performance measures cause the company to look through its rear view mirror. These measures indicate past performance and do little to help guide future performance or have a positive impact on organizational results. Step Eight - Reviewing System-Wide Tools OU Tools are powerful forces in defining how an organization behaves. An enterprise-wide tool can be one of the most dramatic vehicles to create (or force) organizational change. Step Nine - Develop Training that Enables Performance GN Training is an integral part of organizational design and behavior. It is essential to ensure that individuals have the knowledge and skills to perform in their current jobs and prepare for new ones. Step Ten – Aligning the Reward Systems M YI Traditionally reward systems have been approached conservatively in the form of salaries for professional employees, and hourly wages for non-exempt employees. In some companies annual bonuses or profit-sharing programs have been added, tied to organizational performance for that year. 23 For more solved assignments go to www.myignou.in ...
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Ignou Eso-11 Free Solved Assignment 2012
4877 WordsOct 8th, 201220 Pages
IGNOU ESO-11 Free Solved Assignment 2012
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Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Programme Code: BDP
Course Code: ESO-11
Assignment Code: ESO-11/
Section – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Describe the major concerns of Sociology and discuss its nature and scope. 20
Solution: Sociology concentrated heavily on society and its major units and their dynamics. It has been striving to analyse the dynamics of the society in terms of organised patterns of social relations.
Firstly, the major concern of sociology is sociological analysis. It means the sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with a sociological perspective. He evinces his…show more content…
Outline the features of a complex society with suitable examples. 20
Solution: A complex society is a social formation that is otherwise described as a formative or developed state. The main criteria of complexity are the extent of a division of labour in which members of society are more or less permanently specialized in particular activities and depend on others for goods and services, within a system regulated by custom and laws, the population size of a human community; the larger the population, the more complex and variegated the co-existence of people tends to become. Social complexity in this sense thus refers typically to political complexity, specifically the presence of a hierarchy in the form of a ruling elite supported by bureaucrats, with associated paraphernalia such as administrative buildings and elite residences in urban or proto-urban population centres. Complex societies under this definition are also agricultural to provide the surplus required to support a social (non-food producing) elite. Explaining the origins of these types of social formations, which appear in many areas of the world, is one of the tasks of archaeology (see, e.g., History & Mathematics: Historical Dynamics and Development of Complex Societies).
There are, however, problems with the term "complexity" when used in this manner. It has been argued that using political organisation (or